intermittent fasting for weight loss

Intermittent Fasting for Weight Loss: Methods and Science

Intermittent fasting for weight loss involves designating between periods of eating and not eating throughout each day.1

In this article, we’ll explore 4 popular intermittent fasting methods for weight loss, and we’ll explain the science-backed ways that intermittent fasting influences weight loss. 


What is Intermittent Fasting? 

Intermittent fasting is a way of simulating our ancestral eating patterns in our modern lives. 

This means cycling between daily time-windows of eating, and not eating. 

Origins of Intermittent Fasting for Weight Loss

For most of human history, the eating patterns of our ancestors consisted of hunting and eating large animals, and fasting between successful hunts.3

Over nearly 2 million years of human evolution, the men and women whose bodies and brains functioned best in fasted states became the best at hunting and gathering. This made them the best at surviving and reproducing.

We, modern humans, inherited the physiology of this dietary evolution. Our bodies are hard-wired to thrive on these ancient cycles of fasting (and feasting). 

But most modern people consume a Standard American Diet. We subject our bodies to an endless and irresistable buffet of highly processed food loaded with carbs, cheap industrial vegetable oils, and added sugars. 2

This adds up to millions of people suffering from diet-related diseases like obesity, PCOS, osteoporosis, IBS, and various other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. At the same time, diet-related diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer are by far the leading causes of death worldwide.4

Fittingly, all the diseases listed above are referred to as “the diseases of civilization” because they are virtually non-existent in traditional societies.2 3

For most people, intermittent fasting brings mindfulness to our food choices, simplifies our diets, and rebalances our hormones–all of which can lead to significant and lasting weight loss. 

There are many methods for practicing IF that you can learn about here

Intermittent Fasting For Weight Loss Schedules

There are many different intermittent fasting schedules for weight loss, and they all involve splitting up a day or days of the week into periods of eating and not eating. 

The most popular IF strategy is known as 16/8 fasting, which we’ll detail below.  But it’s only one of numerous IF methods that you can tailor to your specific physiology and health goals. 

Women, in particular, may want to learn more about female-centered approaches to IF that protect against hormone imbalances. 

Here, we’ll take a look at four of the most popular intermittent fasting for weight loss schedules. 

The 16/8 Intermittent Fasting for Weight Loss Schedule

The 16/8 method entails skipping breakfast and eating all your meals within an 8 hour period. 

A common approach is to maintain an eating window between 11am and 7 p.m. 

Outside of this 8-hour window you are fasting for 16 hours. 

16-8 Intermittent Fast

Eat-Stop-Eat Intermittent Fasting For Weight loss

One of the simplest IF technique, the Eat-stop-eat calls for a 24 hour fast once or twice a week. 

As with any of these intermittent fasting methods for weight loss, it’s important to chose the method that’s right for you body. 

Some people find a 24 hour fast to be relatively easy. It provides a deep digestive cleanse, while freeing the other days from any restrictions. 

Whereas others might find it very stressful to withhold eating for 24 hours, and prefer a less intensive daily approach. 


Circadian Rhythm Fasting for Weightloss

One of the easiest intermittent fasting for weight loss schedules to get into is called Circadian Rhythm Fasting

This IF method involves eating only during daylight hours–the period when your digestion and metabolism are most active. After 7 pm your metabolism naturally slows down. 

Sleep and Health: Circadian rhythm

Brunch Fast (AKA 12-14 Hour Fast)

A “Brunch Fast” is a gentle method that may be healthier for people who are extremely sensitive to low-blood sugar, and for women who are concerned about possible hormone imbalances.

The Brunch Fast method calls for 12-14 hours of fasting that ends with a late breakfast, or brunch. 

12 Hour Fast Top Title

What the Science Says About Intermittent Fasting for Weight Loss 

The current science on intermittent fasting for weight loss comes mostly from clinical trials involving obese individuals. So more research needs to be done in this area to determine its effectiveness on other populations. 

From a 2014 review of available studies, researchers determined that intermittent fasting reduced body weight by 3-8%. This covered clinical studies that lasted 3-24 weeks.2

Participants in IF studies lost weight at a rate of .55 to 1.65 pounds per week.2

A 4-7% reduction in waist circumference (indicating a loss of belly fat) was also observed by researchers.

It’s worth noting here that though intermittent fasting is effective for weight loss, that’s only one of many intermittent fasting benefits. Other possible benefits include 1, 2, 3

  • Improved metabolic health
  • Reduced risk of heart disease
  • Blood sugar regulation
  • Controlled cholesterol and triglycerides levels
  • Increased lean muscle mass
  • Stimulates human growth hormones
  • Activates stem cell production
  • Reduced risk of cancer

Intermittent Fasting Helps You Reduce Calories

As we mentioned above, most people on a Standard American diet eat constantly. This is due in large part to the fact that carbs and sugar are addictive! 

For our ancestors, sources of carbs and sugar were very rare. Almost none of the fruits and veggies we eat now existed. Agriculture was also non-existent meaning they ate zero grains. 

When our ancestors came upon a tree of ripe fruit, or a beehive, their bodies told them to eat as much as possible. Then the body would turn all that sugar into fat, which is the body’s way of storing energy for leaner times. 

Nowadays when we encounter high-carb and sugary foods our bodies send the same signals via hormones like insulin and dopamine–eat as much as possible, store it as fat!. 

The obvious difference is that we modern humans are never more than a convenience store away from an abundance of sugar. 

This brings us to one of the most obvious ways intermittent fasting aids in weight loss–most of us simply end up eating less. 

Less eating means less calories. Less calories mean less excess energy stored as fat, and more stored energy (in the form of fat) broken down into fuel for the body. 

Studies comparing intermittent fasting for weight loss with diets that call for continuous calorie restriction show the same weight loss between the two groups.2

Intermittent Fasting Changes Your Hormones

As we mentioned above, when you restrict calories, your body is forced to use the energy it has stored as fat.  The science of intermittent fasting centers on how it unlocks this stored energy by triggering your body to undergo the following hormonal changes: 2 3


When you eat carbohydrates your body breaks them down into simple sugars (glucose) that goes into your blood. 

In response, your body secretes insulin to push the blood sugar into your cells. 

When you are fasting your insulin drops, triggering a process where your body begins breaking down fat into energy.


Norepinephrine is then sent to your fat cells, facilitating their breakdown into free fatty acids that your body uses as energy. 

Human Growth Hormone

When intermittent fasting, levels of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) may increase by up to 500%.2

Though this increase can have various benefits, it may also signal the brain to conserve energy by limiting fat burning, which would make it harder to lose weight.2

Combining Intermittent Fasting and Keto

When you combine intermittent fasting and keto, you restrict carbs during your eating periods. This speeds up the drop in insulin and primes your body to break down fat into fuel. 

A high-fat, low-carb ketogenic diet puts your body into a state of ketosis, where it makes fat the primary fuel source. 

Since keto and IF have both been shown to support weight loss, skillfully combining these approaches may enhance their overall effectiveness.

An added benefit of this approach is that when you are keto-adapted, your body doesn’t depend on carbs so your blood sugar remains more stable. Stable blood sugar means less glycemic stress and less secretion of stress hormones like HGH.

Intermittent Fasting Helps Maintain Muscle Mass when Dieting

One of the highlights of intermittent fasting for weight loss is how it allows you to maintain muscle mass while dieting. . 

One clinical review found that when compared to calorie restriction, an IF diet led to a significantly smaller loss of muscle mass. 2

For example, in studies on calorie restriction, a whopping 25% of weight lost is accounted for by a loss in muscle mass. 

Whereas, for intermittent fasting dieters, only 10% of weight loss is muscle mass.4 

Intermittent Fasting Simplifies Your Diet

Simplifying your diet reduces cravings and supports mindful eating

Though eating less calories is often a result of intermittent fasting, you don’t have to count calories. All you have to do is set an alarm or look at a clock. 

You can simplify your eating routine even more by enjoying a nutrient-packed keto or carnivore diet meal plan. These ways of eating base meals around satiating whole foods that provide the ideal ratio of fat, protein, and minimal carbs. 

They also offer the added benefit of eliminating carb-loaded and processed foods from your pantry and routine. This can be especially helpful when considering that carbs may be addictive. 

The Mediterranean and pescatarian keto options are good places to start for beginners. 

Intermittent Fasting for Weight Loss Tips for Success

Intermittent fasting won’t automatically cause weight loss or improve your health–there are a few key tips to keep in mind:

  1. Eat whole foods: This means healthy fats and animal-based superfoods 
  2. It takes time: As with anything body-related, “body time” is slower than “mind time”. Give yourself at least 3 weeks before assessing for any significant weight loss
  3. Have patience and compassion for yourself: Most of us have a very emotional relationship to our food and eating habits. A dramatic change can cause mood swings and emotional pain. Daily mindfulness practices can help regulate your mood! 
  4. Exercise: By eliminating junk food many people are losing a way to self-medicate. Replace the endorphins you get from eating with low-impact movement practices like cycling, yoga, walking, and swimming

Intermittent Fasting For Weight Loss: The Outlook

Intermittent fasting is clinically studied and backed by science to improve weight loss. 

By reducing calories, changing hormones to more efficiently turn fat into fuel, and simplifying your diet, intermittent fasting is both effective and relatively easy. 

There are numerous intermittent fasting methods and schedules that your can try out here! 

Goat liver

Goat Liver: Nutrition, Benefits, and Low-Carb Recipes

In this article, we’ll explore goat liver nutrition, its health benefits, and offer a few tasty low-carb goat liver recipes. 

Goat (AKA Mutton) liver may not be the first food you think of when you’re hungry, or even the first organ meat superfood that comes to mind for nose-to-tail eating aficionados.  

But it is more approachable (and tastier) than you’d think! Goat liver offers many of the same amazing health benefits you’ve come to expect of beef or chicken liver — and even a few distinctive benefits of its own. 

Time to dig in.

What is Goat Liver?

Goat liver is the liver of a young male or female goat, in this context specifically eaten and enjoyed as food. It’s also called Mutton liver, and common in areas where goats (as opposed to cows) are relied on to feed the population. 

Mutton is a staple food in India, Africa, Australia, the Middle East, Central and South America, and New Zealand. Goat liver’s culture-by-culture popularity is reflected by the presence of curry spice or nutmeg in many of the best recipes. 

Ironically, many populations that suffer from food scarcity often get the unexpected benefits of goat liver since they have to rely on inexpensive organ meats to get adequate calories. 

In recent years the popularity of goat’s milk, goat meat, and other goat-derived products has spread to the US. 

Goat meat is especially popular in Texas — 44% of the U.S.’s three milllion-plus goats call the Lone Star State their home. A growing number of farmers are realizing that goats are more environmentally friendly and easier to feed than cattle. [1]

Goat Liver Nutrition

Like many other types of liver, goat liver contains unusually high amounts of vital vitamins and minerals like vitamin B12, iron, and vitamin A. 

Goat Liver Nutrition: Macronutrients

TOTAL FAT3.6 grams
TRANS FAT0.0 grams
CHOLESTEROL302 milligrams
SODIUM0 milligrams
POTASSIUM258 milligrams
NET CARBS3.1 grams
SUGAR0 grams
PROTEIN20.4 grams


Goat liver is predictably low in fat. Most of the fat it does have is anti-inflammatory and highly saturated. [2

You can thank goat’s status as a ruminant animal for that — goats and other ruminants can convert the ‘bad’ fats they eat into ‘good’ fats that benefit us when we eat them. [3]


Goat liver is also a great source of protein. Just a modest 3oz serving of liver contains the 20+ grams you need to max out protein synthesis. [4] This protein comes in a truly complete format featuring all 9 essential amino acids. [5]


Mutton liver contains small amounts of carbs, especially if it’s still fresh. 3 ounces of liver contains between 3-4 grams of carbohydrates. But don’t worry about this interfering with your keto or carnivore diet, as you can eat plenty of liver and still stay in ketosis.  

Goat Liver Nutrition: Micronutrients

IRON4.9 milligrams62%
MAGNESIUM18 milligrams6% 
PHOSPHORUS387 milligrams39%
ZINC4 milligrams27%
COPPER9.8 milligrams488%
THIAMIN0.2 milligrams13%
RIBOFLAVIN (B2)2.8 milligram163%
NIACIN13.2 milligrams66%
FOLATE290 micrograms73%
VITAMIN B61 milligrams84%
VITAMIN B1259.3 micrograms2471%


3 ounces of goat liver contains a whopping 24 times your daily B12 RDV. This type of megadose can lead to serious improvements in energy levels, mental health, and more. B12’s other benefits include: [6]

  • More efficient cell division
  • Increased energy (ATP) generation
  • Faster carbohydrate and fat metabolism
  • Healthier nervous system (CNS) function


Goat liver is a great source of heme iron, a variety that is far more bioavailable than the iron you find in plant based foods. 

Just 100 grams of goat liver contains enough iron for most males to hit their RDV (the RDV for menstruating women is higher). 

Liver is so high in iron that it was used by Nobel prize winner Dr. George Minot to cure patients from iron-deficiency anemia. “If patients ate abundant amounts of liver daily, their condition improved,” Minot and his colleagues noted. This ‘liver treatment’ was popular throughout the 1930s before newer, more easily-patented cures took over. [7

Goat liver’s iron content is also helpful for pregnant women, who need more heme iron than usual. [8]


Goat liver is also a good source of copper. In fact, it’s so high in copper that if you eat it too often your body’s copper:zinc ratio can become unbalanced.

Eaten once a week, however, goat liver’s copper content contributes to a variety of important physiological functions: [9]

  • Connective tissue regeneration
  • Energy (ATP) generation
  • Nervous system function
  • Hair maintenance (strength, sheen etc)
  • Antioxidant production

Goat liver’s other nutrients

The above three nutrients may be goat liver’s highlights, but they’re really just the start. Liver is also a great source of the following:

  • Vitamin A
  • Riboflavin (B2)
  • Niacin (B3)
  • Pantothenic acid (B5)
  • Pyridoxine (B6)
  • Folate (B9)
  • Vitamin D
  • Phosphorous
  • Selenium
  • Zinc

Goat Liver Benefits 

Better skin

Any skincare enthusiasts reading this will probably be aware of the most popular skincare product of all time: retinol–a derivative of vitamin A. 

Retinol has a decades-long track record of improving the skin’s appearance and warding off aging — it’s popular for good reason. 

What you might not know is that the vitamin A you ingest can benefit your skin from the inside out. Goat liver is so rich in preformed vitamin A (the most absorbable kind) that many liver lovers report it giving them soft, glowing skin. [10]

More Energy!

Many people find that goat liver provides a noticeable energy rush. 

This energy-boosting quality is due to a special blend of B vitamins. Studies dating back to the 1950s show that eating liver can boost endurance and exercise tolerance. [11

Fast forward to the present day, these same energy-boosting and anti-fatigue factors can help you stay focused and productive throughout your day. 

Improves Memory

Goat liver’s blend of cholesterol, B vitamins, and iron, means it’s an incredible brain food. 

Many eaters find that both their mood and memory improve for days following a meal of liver. 

Given B vitamins improve cellular energy production throughout the brain, this is really no surprise. Getting adequate B12 may also help clear toxic metabolites like homocysteine out of your brain. [12] [13

A Better Future (We’ll Explain)

This last benefit may sound cryptic, but it’s not. 

Studies done in animals have shown that eating liver can positively affect the next generation. If young animals eat liver, they develop into stronger and more robust creatures — and so does the generation after them. [14

The idea that liver could shift one’s epigenetic health towards a more robust direction is observed in the studies of pioneering diet researcher Weston A. Price, the “Isaac Newton of Nutrition.”. Price found that virtually every ancient culture viewed animal liver as a staple food for pregnant women and young children. [15

Sourcing Quality Goat Liver

Quality is everything when it comes to consuming goat liver. 

The liver of a stressed animal may be slightly higher in residual toxins and lower in important nutrients. 

In addition to these tangible nutritional differences, studies in other species suggest that the stress present in an animal can be passed on to the eater in the form of deformed polyamine proteins. In short, eating the liver of stressed, poorly-treated goats isn’t the best choice. [16]

The liver from humanely raised grass-fed goat liver, on the other hand, is a true superfood in every sense of the word. 

Ask around at your local farmer’s market, or just consult your techno oracle (Google), to see if there are any goat farmers near you. 

If goat liver is unavailable, too inconvenient to cook, or you just can’t warm to the taste, but you still want the robust nutrition benefits, Doctor Kiltz’s beef liver supplements might be the ticket! 

Goat Liver Recipe

goat liver fry

If you’ve read enough to become convinced that this special food is for you, the following recipe should help you reap its nutrition and benefits. 

This goat liver recipe transforms what might sound like an intimidating anachronism into a savory dish that the whole family can enjoy. 

Goat (Mutton) Liver Fry


  • ½ pound goat liver
  • Several small onions
  • 3 large garlic cloves
  • Curry leaves
  • 4 long coconut pieces
  • 1 tsp cumin seeds
  • ½ tsp curry powder
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • Ginger to taste
  • Cooking fat (ghee works great) 


  1. Wash the liver thoroughly, then cut it into small pieces with kitchen scissors.
  2. Chop up onions and curry leaves and keep them ready to the side. 
  3. Time to make masala! Add garlic, cumin seeds, pepper, ginger, curry powder, red chili, and coconut into a blender and blend until smooth. 
  4. Add mustard seeds and curry leaves to an oiled pan. Add pepper to taste. 
  5. Once the mustard seeds start ‘sputtering, add your pieces of liver. 
  6. After two minutes, add onion and red chili. Fry until the onions are lightly cooked.
  7. Add your grounded masala and mix everything together. 
  8. Saute for 2 minutes, then cover with a lid and simmer for 5 minutes. 
  9. Check on the masala periodically. When all the excess water is gone, continue simmering for one minute.
  10. Add chopped coriander and serve warm. 

The Takeaway

Goat liver’s winning combo of abundant nutrients and virtually no antinutrients means it’s one of the most nourishing foods on the planet. 

If you can find it, don’t be afraid to try this unique food for yourself! 


lamb kidney

Lamb Kidney: Nutrition, Benefits, and Low-Carb Recipes

If you love lamb, chances are you’ll also enjoy lamb kidneys. Lamb kidney has a richer flavor and a more pungent aroma than your average lamb muscle meat. But the effort it takes you to get used to lamb kidney is more than repaid in its rich nutritional benefits. 

In this article, we’ll explore the nutrition provided by this succulent organ meat, along with its associated health benefits. We’ll also share 3 delicious low-carb lamb kidney recipes for making this superfood part of your culinary repertoire. 


What is Lamb Kidney?

Lamb kidney is simply the kidney of a young sheep. Kidney has been enjoyed by cultures around the globe for centuries. Most preparations are similar: they feature grilled kidneys in a sweet or spicy sauce. 

For something with such a strong taste and smell, the popularity of lamb kidneys may seem surprising at first. This popularity is a direct result of their impressive nutritional profile. 

Lamb Kidney Nutrition

Lamb kidney is an excellent source of protein, iron, and vitamin B12 among other vital nutrients. Here’s a closer look at its macronutrient and micronutrient profiles. 

Lamb Kidney Macronutrients

TOTAL FAT2.9 grams
TRANS FAT0.0 grams
CHOLESTEROL337 milligrams
SODIUM156 milligrams
POTASSIUM277 milligrams
NET CARBS0.8 grams
SUGAR0 grams
PROTEIN15.7 grams


Lamb kidney is fairly low in fat, especially when compared to popular cuts of muscle meat like lamb chops. 

The fat in lamb kidney is a nice blend of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. 

All of these fats play an important role in basic metabolic processes and can optimize the fatty acid composition of your cells. [1

Kidney fat is  high in both omega 3’s, and the beneficial saturated fat called stearic acid. 


Kidney is a great source of complete protein. Just 3 ounces contains 15.7 grams of protein — almost enough to maximize protein synthesis. [2] The protein in kidney contains all 9 essential amino acids. This means it’s more effective gram-for-gram than plant proteins. [3]


Lamb kidney contains a very small amount of carbohydrates. Fresh kidney may contain slightly more than the .8 grams per 100 grams listed. Even then, kidney is low enough in carbs to perfectly complement a keto/carnivore diet.

Lamb Kidney Micronutrients

IRON2.7 milligrams35%
MAGNESIUM16 milligrams4% 
PHOSPHORUS190 milligrams25%
ZINC1.5 milligrams15%
COPPER198 micrograms22%
THIAMIN4.1 milligrams41%
RIBOFLAVIN (B2)8.3 milligram132%
NIACIN4.6 milligrams38%
VITAMIN B60.1 milligrams11%
VITAMIN B1215.5 micrograms873%
SELENIUM141 micrograms202%


3 ounces of lamb kidney contains over 8 times your RDV for vitamin B12. Just as with liver, many people find kidney to be highly energizing. B12’s ability to improve cellular energy production is at the root of its power-boosting properties. [4]


Lamb kidney is a good source of iron, clocking in at 35% per small serving. This iron comes in the form of easily absorbed heme iron that mirrors the iron found in our own bloodstreams. [5]


Lamb kidney is also a great source of selenium — selenium that’s more bioavailable than that of other common food sources. Just three ounces contains twice your RDV. Selenium plays a vital role in thyroid health and metabolism. [6

Lamb Kidney Health Benefits 

Lamb kidney’s top health benefits are most apparent in the ways it: 

  • promotes growth and development
  • boosts metabolism
  • benefits your own kidney function

Promotes Growth and Development 

In traditional societies that thrived on nose-to-tail eating, kidney meats were known to be important foods for the growing body. “The kidneys are usually given to children,” pioneering Arctic explorer Vilhjalmur Stefansson described in his book The Fat of the Land, “somewhat as if they were candy.” [7]

Boosts metabolism

Kidney fat is rich in omega 3 fatty acids which have been shown to promote metabolic health. [8

The fat surrounding the kidneys is special, too — it’s 70% saturated and unusually high in stearic acid, a fatty acid that’s been correlated with lower body fat levels, thanks in large part to the way it “switches on” the mitochondria (energy factories) in your cells. [9][10]

Benefits Kidney Function 

Kidney contains several hard-to-find amino acids, like l-ergothioneine, that promote the kidney health of those who consume them. Ergothionine’s downstream benefits also include promoting fertility. [11

Sourcing Quality Lamb Kidney

Quality counts when it comes to organ meats, and lamb kidney is no exception. And happy lambs make healthy organs.

Considering that research in other species has found that memory-containing proteins transfer from one creature to the next, eating low-quality organ meats isn’t ideal. [12]

Sourcing kidney from grass-fed lambs is important, too. Grass-fed meat is likely lower in inflammatory fats than other types of meat. [13

If you’re interested in kidney specifically for the nutrition benefits, but can’t source a quality product, or you’re just looking for convenience, you may want to consider organ meat supplementation. 

You can check out Dr. Kiltz’s grass-fed organ meat supplement here, or explore and compare organ meat supplements here. 

How to Cook Lamb Kidney: 3 Delicious Low-Carb Recipes

This way of cooking lamb kidney is equal parts yummy and easy. 

Pan-fried “huo bao” kidney

  • 2-3 lamb kidneys 
  • 1/2 cup of coconut oil
  • 1 tablespoon wine
  • 1/2 teaspoon tapioca/coconut flour
  • 1/2 curry powder
  • 1/4 teaspoon turmeric
  1. Slice off thin, ¼ inch by ¾ inch pieces of kidney. 
  2. Score the kidneys in one direction, then in the opposite direction (you should have a cross-hatch pattern when done). 
  3. Mix the kidney slices with the other ingredients to make a marinade.
  4. Heat your coconut oil in a large pan until it’s just beginning to crackle. Fry a few slices of kidney at a time, being careful not to cool the oil. 
  5. Deep fry for about one minute on each side. 
  6. Serve when the slices are crispy and still warm. 

Scoring and frying your lamb kidneys in this manner allows the outsides to become crispy while keeping the insides soft and tender.  This fried kidney recipe might be tasty enough to transform even the most offal-shy eater into a believer.

Simple Kidneys and Sage

This lamb kidney recipe makes fits in perfectly with a Mediterranean keto diet.

  • 2 lamb kidneys
  • 6 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • 3 tablespoons finely minced sage
  • 3 teaspoons aged balsamic vinegar
  • 3 tablespoons ghee 
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  1. Slice each kidney in half. 
  2. Mix olive oil, minced sage, and balsamic vinegar in a small bowl. Place the kidney halves in the marinade for about two hours.
  3. Heat your ghee in a small pan and fry some extra sage leaves in it. After 5-10 seconds, remove the sage from heat and transfer to a plate. frying oil until very hot but not smoking. Fry a couple of sage leaves at a time until crisp, for about 5-10 seconds. Using a fork, transfer the leaves to paper towels and sprinkle generously with salt.
  4. Remove the kidneys from the marinade and place them on the pan. Grill 1-2 minutes on each side. The final product should be nicely charred on the outside — but still somewhat rare on the inside.
  5. Place kidney halves on a plate and add salt and pepper to taste. Garnish with sage leaves and enjoy. 

Traditional Deviled Kidneys

This lamb kidney recipe transforms an intimidating organ meat into a bonified comfort food. And it provides a fantastic fat to protein ratio that makes it a great fit for most ketogenic dieters.

  • 2 to 4 lamb kidneys
  • 1/4 pound fresh mushrooms
  • 1/4 cup coconut flour
  • 6 tablespoons butter
  • 1 teaspoon cayenne
  • 1 teaspoon dry mustard
  • 1 tbsp honey
  • 3 tbsp beef stock (or Keto Bone Broth!)
  1. Slice each kidney into 5-10 pieces.
  2. Sear mushrooms in a hot pan with lots of butter until they’re golden brown. Remove them from heat and set them aside. 
  3. Mix your coconut flour, cayenne, mustard, salt, and pepper, and dust the kidney pieces with this mixture.
  4. Get your pan very hot and add another few tablespoons of butter. Brown the kidneys in this butter. Turn kidneys over every few minutes. 
  5. Return the mushrooms to the pan, add honey and beef stock, and shake. Let cook for another minute or two.
  6. Serve warm

Lamb Kidney: The Takeaway

Lamb kidney is nutrient-dense, delicious, and seriously underrated. And It fits perfectly into the modern revival of the ancient nose-to-tail eating paradigm!

Lamb kidney’s health benefits explain why: It can boost the health of your own kidneys and set the stage for your children’s future growth and development — but only if you actually eat it ;)


grass fed cows and sheep on a pasture with mountain in background

Bone Marrow Supplement: Health Benefits and Best Brands

Bone marrow as food has been a staple among cultures across the globe since before recorded history.  Now, in our busy modern lives, beef bone marrow supplement offers a convenient way to get the benefits of this ancient superfood. 

In this article, we’ll explore the nutrition and benefits of beef bone marrow supplement, and take a look at some of the highest quality bone marrow supplements on the market. 


Historical Importance of Bone Marrow

Bone marrow has been so important to human nutrition that researchers believe it could have been the first animal food in the human diet. Evidence from ancient tools and bone fragments tells us that early humans scavenged bone marrow millenia before they were smart enough to hunt. 

And in fact, it was the nutrients they unlocked from scavenging bone marrow that provided the fuel to grow their brains. Without bone marrow, we wouldn’t be the super intelligent species we are today.

This ancient tradition of eating the whole animal nose-to-tail not only helped us evolve, it also kept us remarkably healthy and essentially free from the most common diseases of the modern world including inflammatory diseases, osteoporosis, heart disease, cancer. There’s a reason why these are called the diseases of civilization. 

We see the importance of bone marrow to an ancestral diet in the observation of pioneering dietary researcher Weston A. Price. Back in the early 1900s when Price studied the dietary practices of Native Americans of the Rocky Mountains, he found, 

“Indians putting great emphasis upon the eating of the organs of the animals, including the wall of parts of the digestive tract. Much of the muscle meat of the animals was fed to the dogs. It is important that skeletons are rarely found where large game animals have been slaughtered by the Indians of the North. The skeletal remains are found as piles of finely broken bone chips or splinters that have been cracked up to obtain as much as possible of the marrow and nutritive qualities of the bones. These Indians obtain their fat-soluble vitamins and also most of their minerals from the organs of the animals. An important part of the nutrition of the children consisted in various preparations of bone marrow, both as a substitute for milk and as a special dietary ration.”

Price made it his life’s work to introduce this dietary wisdom to friends, patients, and even orphanages — often with remarkable results. In his reports, numerous people recovered from tooth decay and degenerative diseases.  

Nowadays organ meats including bone marrow is making a comeback, gracing the menus of the hippest restaurants. And bone broth is even served at many coffee shops! 

But if bone marrow proves too expensive or inconvenient for you, bone marrow supplement may be an ideal option. 


For millennia, traditional cultures across the globe have ascribed to a like-supports-like approach to the nutritional values of organ meats. For instance, if a person has a heart ailment, they eat heart. If a person has an energy issue, they consume animal liver. 

The same goes for bone marrow: Consuming bone marrow, cartilage, and bones themselves provides numerous amino acids and compounds that directly support the health of people’s bones and connective tissues. 

What is a Bone Marrow Supplement?

A bone marrow supplement is a dietary supplement that contains dried bovine bone marrow. 

The healthiest bovine bone marrow comes from the healthiest cows. These happen to be grass-fed, pasture-raised cattle from New Zealand–which we’ll explore a bit more later on. 

What are Desiccated Organ Meat Supplements?

Most quality beef bone marrow supplements are “desiccated”– a fancy word for “dried”. 

The highest quality bone marrow supplements are desiccated using a gentle freeze-drying process. 

In this process beef bone marrow is turned into a powder that can be stored and administered in a convenient gel capsule. 

The cheaper, and lower quality process of high-heat drying can degrade important nutrients.  But freeze-drying retains most of the vitamins, minerals, and co-factors of fresh bone marrow.  

Freeze-drying also reduces the water weight, allowing you to consume less, while still receiving the full offering of nutritional benefits. 

Bone Marrow Nutrition 

For an ancient food, it’s interesting to note that the nutrients in bone marrow are only partially known. 

The nutrition in bone marrow likely provides vitamin K2 along with other fat-soluble vitamins, their exact values are still being explored.

Though research is ongoing, available analysis provides the following bone marrow nutrition information. 

Nutrient100g of Bone MarrowRecommended Daily Value (RDV)% RDV
Calories770 calories2,500 calories30%
Protein7 grams50 g (standard diet, not keto)14%
Fat80 grams30 g (standard diet, not keto)266%
Carbohydrates0 mg120 g (standard diet, not keto)0%
Niacin0.4 mg16 mg3%
Selenium20 mcg70 mcg36%
Iron0.8 mg20 mg4%
Magnesium1.8 mg420 mg 0.4%
Zinc0.1 mg11 mg1%
Potassium137 mg4000 mg5%
Phosphorus7 mg700 mg1%

Benefits of Beef Bone Marrow Supplement

In addition to the above nutrients found in bone marrow itself, most high quality bone marrow supplement offers a complex of additional nutrients rendered from processing the entire bovine bone. 

Together the bone marrow and bone extracts in these supplements offer numerous benefits which we’ll look at now. 

Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite (MCHA): Prevents Bone Loss

Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MCHA) is a compound derived from processing the whole bovine bone. 

As a natural compound microcrystalline hydroxyapatite comprises the crystalline matrix of bone and teeth. It is the substance that gives these body parts their rigidity. 

MCHA contains highly absorbable calcium and phosphorus, which are the major mineral components of bone.

When part of a bone marrow supplement MCHA offers highly absorbable occurring calcium and phosphorus, along with a potent variety of bone supporting minerals derived from bone tissue. 

These specialized minerals include magnesium, phosphorous, a calcium-binding protein called osteocalcin, collagen, and bone growth factors like as IGF-I and IGF-II.

The body uses these nutrients to maintain and repair our living bones and connective tissues. 

Clinical studies on the effectiveness of supplementing with microcrystalline hydroxyapatite show that it is effective in preventing bone loss, even in people with compromised immune systems and in menopausal women.

Vitamin K2: Promotes Stem Cell Activation

The vitamin K2 provided by bone marrow supplement promotes stem cell activation in bone marrow itself. This function is an example of the like-supports-like property of beef bone marrow supplement.

Calcium: Protects Against Anti-Nutrients

The calcium provided by beef bone marrow supplement has many obvious benefits like promoting bone health and supporting muscle function.

Recent research is also showing that calcium binds with certain plant-toxins and antinutrients like oxalates and phytic acid. In the case of oxalate binding, calcium from dairy sources is protective against kidney stones.

Boron, Strontium and Manganese: 

These trace minerals are vital in the promotion and utilization of important hormones like estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D (which is both a vitamin and a hormone). 

Together these minerals and hormones work together to increase bone mineral density, reduce fracture risk, and build healthy cartilage. 

Bovine Activin A: For Bone and Cartilage Formation

Like other organ meat supplements bone marrow supplement contains organ specific bioactive peptides (short chain amino acid), including Bovine Activin A, which may support cartilage formation and bone growth.

Myeloid and Lymphoid Cells: Increased Immunity

Bone marrow provides the same myeloid and lymphoid cells our bodies use to produce white and red blood cells. These cells are crucial to immunity, and they assist in cellular regeneration throughout your body.

Bone marrow also contains alkylglycerols. This special type of lipid (fat) has innate immunomodulating properties.   

Collagen: Skin and Joint Health

Beef bone marrow supplement provides glycine-rich collagen and other ‘relaxant’ proteins. 

Research on supplemental collagen has found that it may improve skin health and reduce aches and pains, while providing antioxidant properties.  

A study of over 60 women found that collagen supplementation improved markers of skin hydration and elasticity i.e. youthfulness.

Studies also show that collagen promotes the health of your joints. A six-month study of athletes found that daily collagen supplementation decreased sports-related pain.

How to Choose A Bone Marrow Supplement

When it comes to choosing the bone marrow supplement that’s right for you, it’s important to know what to look for. 

Here’s a quick rundown of key factors offered by the highest quality brands

Grass-Fed and Grass-Finished 

Research shows that Grass-fed, grass-finished beef offers more nutrients than grain-fed beef.

The superior nutrient profile includes both micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) as well as  fats and amino acids that make up the macronutrients in foods.  

For example, grass-fed meat contains fewer PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids), which can contribute to inflammation.

The organs of grass-fed beef also contain more CLA (conjugated linoleic acid ) than grain-fed cattle organs.  More CLA can help improve weight loss and muscle mass.


For most living organisms the happier they are, the healthier they are, and cows are no different.

Research looking at worms–one of the most basic living organisms– suggests that the stress an animal endures can fundamentally change their biology. [29] 

So the humane choice in choosing pasture-raised bone marrow supplement is also the healthy choice. 

Freeze Dried 

Freeze drying is far more effective in capturing and preserving the nutrients from fresh organs when compared to standard extraction processes that use heat.

Think of freeze-drying as the key to getting the bone marrow supplement benefits listed above.

Bone Marrow Supplement from New Zealand Cattle 

New Zealand cattle are among the world’s happiest and healthiest. 

New Zealand cattle benefit from their pristine climate of mild and wet winters, and sunny summers providing the perfect conditions for year-round outdoor pastured living.

Contrast those vast expanses of bright green grass and fresh water with American ranches where even grass-fed cattle have to be kept indoors during winter months. During this time they are also fed on nutrient-deficient dried hay. 

Unfortunately, to date there is no direct data comparing New Zealand bone marrow with U.S. raised bone marrow. However, we can get a sense of the superior quality of New Zealand beef products by looking at a comparison of key nutrients between New Zealand beef liver and U.S. raised beef liver: 

  • Vitamin B12 – New Zealand beef liver has 43% more than U.S. raised beef liver. 
  • Vitamin B5 – New Zealand beef liver has 44% more than U.S. raised beef liver. 
  • Iron – New Zealand beef liver has 72% more than U.S. raised beef liver. 
  • Thiamin (Vitamin B1) – New Zealand beef liver has 96% more than U.S. raised liver. 
  • Vitamin A – New Zealand beef liver has a staggering 459% more than U.S. raised liver. 

Other Ingredients: Fillers, Additives, Flow Agents 

The healthiest supplements are free of additives, fillers, binders, stearates, and flow agents. Look for bone marrow supplements that offer only pure: 

  • Grass-Fed Bovine Bone Marrow
  • Grass-Fed Bovine Cartilage
  • Grass-Fed Bovine Bone (MCHA)

An important note is to look for bone marrow supplement that is NOT defatted. Defatting bone marrow supplement removed the fat-soluble vitamins at the core of its health benefits. 


Most bone marrow supplements call for 3000 milligrams as day. This comes out to ¾ of 1 teaspoon.

Though that might not sound like much, keep in mind that bone marrow supplements are desiccated (dried). 

In their fresh state, the majority of bone marrow is water.  For example 3000g of dried bone marrow is nutritionally equivalent to appx 1 oz (28 g) of fresh bone marrow. 


When considering the quality factors listed above, we’ve found that moderately priced products are often the best choice. 

Coming in a around $40 per bottle, the best bone marrow supplements provide quality nutrition without the unnecessary additions like processed “multi-vitamins” and other compounds that don’t come from whole food sources, have little clinical efficacy, and just drive up the price. 

Best Bone Marrow Supplements

Our three favorite beef liver supplements are all super high quality products and contain 3000 mg, or 3 grams of freeze-dried beef organs. This is the nutritional power of roughly 1 oz or 28g of fresh organs. 

Ancestral Nutrition

Ancestral Nutrition’s “Grassfed Bone Marrow”call there offering “whole bone extract”, due to is sourcing from the femur bone all the way down to the knuckle’s end. This creates a “whole bone matrix” of nutrients including calcium hydroxyapatite, osteocalcium phosphate, collagen, proteoglycans, matrix proteins, cytokines, growth factors, fat soluble activators, stem cells, cartilage and collagen peptides. 

  • 3000 mg of grass-fed and finished beef bone marrow and whole bone extract. Pasture raised in New Zealand
  • Freeze Dried to preserve optimal nutritional profile
  • May have additives like flow agents or binders
  • 6 easy to swallow pills per serving
  • $52
  • Free Shipping with Amazon Prime

One Earth Health

Sourced from grass-fed and finished New Zealand cattle, One Earth Health’s bone marrow supplement offers a complex of bone marrow, MCHA, and cartilage. 

  • 3000 mg of grass-fed and finished beef marrow, bone, and cartilage, pasture raised in New Zealand
  • Freeze Dried to preserve optimal nutritional profile
  • No fillers, additives or flow agents
  • 6 easy to swallow pills per serving
  • $39.99

Antler Farms

If you’re looking for just pure 100% grass fed New Zealand bone marrow, Antler Farms Bone Marrow Supplement may be the way to go. However, it doesn’t offer the other “whole bone” benefits you’d get from MCHA. 

  • 3000 mg of pure grass-fed and finished beef bone marrow from New Zealand
  • Freeze Dried to preserve optimal nutritional profile
  • No fillers, additives or flow agents
  • 6 easy to swallow pills per serving
  • $44.99

Bone Marrow Supplement Brand Comparison

Each of these brands comes in at a similar price point, and they all offer New Zealand raised bone marrow and bone extract. However, they have some key differences with regards to the addition of compounds other than bone marrow. 


BrandAncestral Nutrition One Earth Health Antler Farms
Content Per Serving3000 mg freeze dried bone marrow and “whole bone extract” 3000 mg freeze dried  bone marrow. Bovine MCHA, and cartilage3000 mg freeze dried Bone marrow
Servings Per Bottle303030
Cattle Feed and LocationGrass-fed and finished, pasture-raised in New ZealandGrass-fed and finished, pasture-raised in New ZealandGrass-fed and finished, pasture-raised in New Zealand
Other IngredientsThey mention that this is the only supplement that is not additive-free, though it is unclear what is added. No Fillers, Additives or Flow AgentsNo Fillers, Additives or Flow Agents
Capsules per serving6 easy to swallow pills per serving6 easy to swallow pills per serving6 easy to swallow pills per serving

Bone Marrow Supplement: The Bottom Line

For millennia humans have relied on bone marrow and the fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, and active compounds they provide. 

As important as the nutrient content itself is their bioavailability. This means how the body absorbs and incorporates them into vital roles. 

Bone marrow supplement, like other organ meat supplements offer key nutrients in the most bioavailable forms: a complete package of co-enzymes and peptides and activators. 

Bone marrow supplements are a convenient and effective way to bring ancient nutritional wisdom into our modern lives.

Brains and eggs in a pan

Pork Brains: Nutrition, Benefits, and How to Eat

Pork brains are incredibly nutritious, easy to cook with, and surprisingly easy to find. Just as importantly, pork brain offers health benefits that you just can’t get from any other food. 

In this article, we’ll explore pork brain’s nutrient content and accompanying benefits. 

What are Pork Brains?

Pork brains, as you might expect, are merely the harvested brains of a pig — intended for use as food. 

Pork brain is surprisingly common in many regional cuisines, especially southern cuisine. They play a significant role in the concept of nose-to-tail eating.

Pork Brains Nutrition

Pork brain is an excellent source of healthy fats, proteins, and dietary cholesterol. Here’s a closer look at its macronutrient and micronutrient profiles. 

Pork Brain Macronutrient Nutrition 

TOTAL FAT9.2 grams
TRANS FAT0.0 grams
CHOLESTEROL2,195 milligrams
SODIUM120 milligrams
POTASSIUM258 milligrams
NET CARBS0.0 grams
SUGAR0 grams
PROTEIN10.3 grams


Of all three major macronutrients, pork brain really shines when it comes to providing healthy fat. 

65% of its calories come from fat — far higher than other organ or muscle meats. The fat in pork brain is rich in DHA and other essential fatty acids. 

The brain of a pig may also be lower in inflammatory omega 6 fats than its muscle meat.


Pork brain is lower in protein than most organ meats, but that’s not necessarily a bad thing.  

The protein it does contain is a truly complete protein containing all 9 essential amino acids. Complete proteins are more valuable for maintaining muscle mass and triggering satiety than incomplete ones.

The high fat to protein ratio also makes pork brains an ideal food for ketogenic and carnivore diets that call for around 80% of calories to come from fat. 


Pork brain contains virtually no carbohydrates. A 3-ounce serving of brain contains 0 grams of carbs and 0 grams of fiber, making it a great addition to your carnivore diet food list!

Pork Brain Micronutrient Nutrition

IRON0.7 milligrams9%
MAGNESIUM16 milligrams4% 
PHOSPHORUS196 milligrams28%
ZINC0.8 milligrams8%
COPPER108 micrograms12%
THIAMIN0.1 milligrams10%
RIBOFLAVIN (B2)1 milligram16%
NIACIN3.4 milligrams21%
FOLATE4.3 micrograms2%
VITAMIN B60.1 milligrams10%
VITAMIN B120.7 micrograms37%


3 ounces of pork brain contains over a third of your vitamin B12 RDA. 

Combine brain with eggs (recipe coming soon) or grass-fed beef, and you’ll be well on your way to ideal B12 status. 

Many people find that vitamin B12 makes them feel energized and more fully alive. Studies have shown that it helps keep cells energized.

B2 (Riboflavin)

3 ounces of pork brain contains over a tenth of your RDV for B2. That may not seem like a lot, but calorie-for-calorie brain is actually quite rich in B2 and other water-soluble B vitamins. 

Together these vitamins promote proper cellular respiration and help you overcome fatigue.


Pork brain is nature’s top source of dietary cholesterol. Just 100 grams of it contains over ten times the cholesterol RDV.  But don’t let this outdated RDV scare you. Studies show that dietary cholesterol has very little if any effect on blood cholesterol levels and associated risk of heart disease.

Our bodies use this purified cholesterol to produce ultra-important hormones like progesterone, pregnenolone, and DHEA.

Cholesterol is a precursor and transporter for many other vitamins, minerals, and hormones, and neurotransmitters like dopamine.

Cholesterol provides so many essential structural and supply-chain solutions within our bodies that it’s been correlated with happiness, intelligence, and well-being.

Other studies have confirmed that official guidelines for what’s considered healthy serum cholesterol are too low. 

People with ‘high’ cholesterol often possess higher “verbal fluency, attention/concentration, abstract reasoning, and a composite score measuring multiple cognitive domains” than those with cholesterol in the ‘ideal’ range.  

Last but not least, cholesterol is even good for the skin. Progressive dermatologists have realized that dietary cholesterol can give your skin a naturally glowy, dewy shine. 

Other Unique Nutrients in Pork Brains

Pork brain also contains several special nutrients, including phosphatidylserine, phosphatisphingomyelin, and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor).  

BDNF in particular aids the brain in creating new neural connections, repairing faulty brain cells, and protecting healthy brain cells. 

Adequate levels of BDNF are associated with reduced risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease.


In addition to being incredibly rich in the precursor to important youth-associated hormones (i.e, cholesterol), brain is a great source of these hormones themselves. 

According to endocrinologist Ray Peat, “the brain is also the richest source of these very water-insoluble (hydrophobic) steroid hormones; it has a concentration about 20 times higher than the serum, for example. The active thyroid hormone is also concentrated many-fold in the brain.”

Possible Drawbacks 

Just one word of caution when it comes to pork brain’s nutrient profile: it’s very high in phosphorus and very low in calcium. 

This ratio is important for maintaining bone density.

In fact, his meat may have the worst calcium: phosphorus ratio of any food. Consider viewing this food as more of a supplement and consuming it no more than a few times a week.

Health Benefits 

Many people find that the pork brain provides a tangible energy rush post-meal. That’s no surprise when considering pork brains nutrition. In fact, you can expect all sorts of health benefits:


The B vitamins in pork brains are known for the mood-boosting, body-energizing effects. Fittingly, B vitamins are also shown to help clear protein byproducts like homocysteine out of your brain. Lowering homocysteine may be especially helpful for those with depression.  


Both men and women may benefit from pork brain’s ability to boost the body’s levels of DHEA, progesterone, and pregnenolone.

Let’s take a look at these hormones one-by-one. 


DHEA is an important hormone that blocks the catabolic (i.e, destructive) effects of cortisol. It also stimulates bone growth, improves thermogenesis, and promotes circulation.


Progesterone is much more than just a ‘pregnancy hormone’ — though it’s especially important at that time. 

Progesterone protects the immune system’s thymus gland, adrenal gland, and thyroid. Progesterone is also notoriously good for your skin.


Pregnenolone counters the fibrotic effects of aging and helps keep muscles relaxed and integrated. Once ingested (via brain of a select few other foods, like eggs), pregnenolone is converted into progesterone and/or DHEA.

Pregnenolone also shines in the area of natural skincare, promoting a ‘face-lifting’ effect thanks to its ability to activate dormant muscles. 

Other Pork Brain benefits

It’s likely that pork brain benefits our brains in yet-to-be-discovered ways, too. 

In other words, eating the brains of animals is probably a fantastic way to nourish your own brain’s health — even though some of the mechanisms for this haven’t yet been discovered by science. 

Sourcing Quality Pork Brains

Quality is everything when it comes to sourcing pork brain. Animals that were poorly treated during their lives may have high levels of fibrosis or stress hormones in their brains. 

Eating the brain of such an animal is probably not the best choice, especially given that research in other species has found that physiological memories can be transferred via proteins from one creature to the next.

Don’t forget the importance of going pasture-raised, either. Pasture-raised pork brain may be higher in saturated fats and lower in inflammatory PUFAs than other varieties — the potential for lower stress levels notwithstanding.  

If you can’t source quality pork brains, you may have better luck with grass-fed beef brain, since grass-fed beef is more widely available than pasture-raised pork. 

How to Cook Pork Brains

Below are two of our favorite pork brain recipes. 

Pork Brains and Eggs Recipe

A Southeastern special, pork brains and eggs is nourising while offering the full-spectrum pork brains nutrition. 


  • I set brains
  • 6 eggs 
  • 2 tablespoons butter
  • Salt to taste


  1. Wash the brain and remove all of its outer membranes.
  2. Soak the brain for 1 hour in a pot of salted, cold water.
  3. Pour the water out, but keep the brain in the pot.
  4. Add fresh cold water and bring the brain to a boil. 
  5. Boil for ten minutes, stirring occasionally. 
  6. Drain the pot, then plunge the brain into cold water to cool. 
  7. Remove the brain from water and slice it into thin pieces.
  8. Place cooked brain into a mixing bowl with eggs. 
  9. Place butter onto a heated skillet. 
  10. Pour the brains and eggs into the skillet, stirring often.
  11. Cook until eggs are just barely “set up.”
  12. Enjoy!

Pork Brains with Milk Gravy Recipe

Pork Brains with milk gravy

This recipe is for the more culinarily-adventurous, but don’t be afraid to try it! 


  • 1 pork brain
  • 1/4 cup tallow
  • 1/4 cup coconut or tapioca flour
  • 2 cups heavy cream
  • Milk (for soaking)
  •  Salt and pepper to taste


  1. Wash the brain and remove all of its outer membranes.
  2. Soak the brain for 12 hours in a pot of milk.
  3. Pour the milk out, but keep the brain in the pot.
  4. Soak the brain a second time for 1+ hours in milk scented with nutmeg.
  5. Poach the brains in milk for 20 minutes. 
  6. Cool brains, strain from milk, and refrigerate.
  7. Remove tallow from fridge and place on high heat.
  8. Stir in flour, cream, and salt and pepper. 
  9. Once the mixture develops a creamy consistency, add brains back in. 
  10. Add salt and pepper to taste.
  11. Serve warm & enjoy!

The Takeaway

Pork brains provide your body with some of the most important nutrients for boosting mood and improving cognition. They’re rich in cholesterol, healthy fats, and complete proteins. 

If you haven’t already tried pork brain, don’t be afraid to cross it off your organ meats bucket list!


new zealand beef

New Zealand Beef: Health Benefits, Quality, and Where to Source

New Zealand grass-fed beef conjures images of happy cows roaming majestic “Lord of the Rings” landscapes–snow-capped mountains, endless rolling green pastures with views of the sparkling Pacific Ocean. 

This fantasy of healthy cattle grazing amidst unspoiled nature is actually reality. 

With a population of only 3 million people, nature and the happy cows who call it home reign supreme in New Zealand.

The temperate climate of wet winters and warm summers translates into endless expanses of emerald green grass–the perfect fuel for bovine diets. 

In this article, we’ll explore how New Zealand’s ranching culture of humane techniques and an all-grass diet make New Zealand cattle the source of the best beef and organ meats in the world. 

We’ll also take a look at what separates New Zealand beef from American beef and why it matters for your health. 


The Difference Between New Zealand and American Beef

If you read the above and you’re thinking, hey, America has plenty of sunshine and rolling pastures, too, you’re somewhat right. America has a huge land area, but across much of it grass-fed ranching is inhibited by long harsh winters. 

And even in more temperate regions, we don’t use all that much of our ideal pasture land to raise and feed our beef. 

This is because since the 1950’s the majority of American cattle is fed a diet of grains (mostly corn) to increase their fat content while raising more animals less expensively in smaller spaces. 

Confined Animal Feeding Operations

The 1950’s marked the advent of animal feedlots, or what the beef industry calls Confined Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). 

These CAFOs are driven by profit margins, not the health of the animals nor the quality of the meat. 

In these filthy, cramped conditions cows receive growth hormones, antibiotics, and GMO feed ridden with pesticides. But they’re good for one thing–producing cheap beef. 

Most American grass-fed and pasture-raised beef producers couldn’t compete and nearly disappeared. 

Nowadays you hear a lot more about grass-fed beef. Yet, according to Dr. Dale Woerner, at the Center for Meat Safety & Quality at Colorado State University, only 3% of U.S. beef is grass-fed. The other 97% are raised on feed lots.  

Misleading Labeling 

To complicate matters, the terms grass-fed and grass-finished are not regulated by the USDA. This means grass-fed cows could still be produced by CAFOs that use grass pellets from GMO sources loaded with pesticides. In America the image of happy cows grazing in the sun is likely very far from the truth.

Organic labeling also doesn’t mean as much as you might think. Though it requires ranchers to pasture their cows, this might only mean a few weeks. And the feed can still include grains and corn as long as they are organically grown. 

In addition, the harsh winters across much of U.S. cattle country mean that for significant parts of each year even truly grass-fed cows have to eat low-nutrient hay–likely grown using pesticides from GMO seeds. 

New Zealand Beef Benefits

Grass fed new zealand beef

Beef ranching, like most businesses that produce high quality products, is driven by a superior culture. Culture entails values, goals, traditions, and incentives. The benefits of New Zealand beef are a result of its ranching culture. 

New Zealand Beef Culture

Much of the New Zealand cattle culture can be traced to the land itself. This small country–about the size of Colorado–has a fittingly small population, but an outsize abundance of natural beauty. This engenders respect and reverence for the natural world that translates to caring for the animals and the environment they grow in. 

There’s also the fact that New Zealand is blessed with an ideal climate, an abundance of grassy pastureland, and different economic forces: They just can’t compete with cheap American factory-farmed beef. New Zealand beef has to stand out in terms of quality. 

Evidence of the superiority of New Zealand’s cattle culture came in 2019 when Forbes named New Zealand’s First Light Farms–a collective of over 50 grass-fed cattle ranches, as the purveyor of the best beef in the world.  

No GMO’s

As with most developed nations other than the U.S. New Zealand bans the production and sale of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). 

GMO prohibitions are based on evidence showing that GMOs may be detrimental to both human and environmental health. 

For example, during the decade after 1996 when GMO crops were introduced

  • the percentage of people with at least 3 chronic illnesses spiked from 7-13% of the American population.
  • Food allergies exploded
  • Autism, digestive issues, and reproductive problems increased
  • Antibiotic resistance increased as a result of the antibiotics fed to CFO animals and then transmitted to humans when we consume their meat. 

New Zealand cattle are pasture-raised and finished. This means they’re never confined to feedlots, forced to eat GMO grains, or administered antibiotics and hormones. 

Superior Fatty Acid Composition

The high quality of New Zealand beef isn’t only defined by what it prohibits(GMOs), but also by what it offers in terms of fatty acid ratios. 

In general grass-fed beef contains fewer inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

Grass-fed beef also contains a healthier ratio of naturally occurring trans fats, like conjugated linoleic acid (CLA),  

CLA is known to provide various health benefits, including improved weight loss and body composition.

Grass-fed beef has also been found to have around 36% higher levels of stearic acid. This beneficial saturated fatty acid can activate mitochondrial function that leads to reduced body fat, and increased weight loss.

Omega 3 to 6 Ratio 

Studies looking specifically at the fat-marbled new New York strip steak from New Zealand’s First Light Farm reveal that it has an Omega 3: Omega 6 ratio of 1:1.3.  By contrast, a grain-fed New York strip has a 1:9.3 ratio. 

Why does this ratio matter? 

Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids have a profound influence on our health. They affect our inflammatory response to pathogens and injury while regulating blood pressure and lung function, among many other processes. 

Omega-3’s have a general anti-inflammatory effect, while omega-6’s have an inflammatory effect. 

Since our bodies do not produce these types of fat on their own, we have to get them from our food. 

With the rise of the standard American Diet loaded with processed vegetable oils, along with the declining use of whole animal fats high in omega-3’s like tallow, butter, and ghee, our omega 3:6 ratios have become highly Omega-6 dominant. Estimates range from 1:12 to 1:25. 

Omega-3:6 imbalances have been linked to numerous inflammatory diseases including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases  , pregnancy issues depression and bipolar disorder.

New Zealand Beef and Heart Health

Contrary to mainstream nutritional misinformation, saturated fat and red meat is not necessarily bad for you. 

In fact, as in the above-mentioned case of stearic acid, saturated fatty acids offer powerful health benefits. 

A recent study funded in part by New Zealand’s First Light farms and conducted by the Liggins Institute at the University of Auckland looked specifically at the health effects of eating 100% grass-fed New Zealand beef for 3 meals a day. 

50 middle-aged men were given either New Zealand wagyu (the extremely fat-marbled variety) beef, grain-fed beef, or soy protein over an 8 week period. During the study, participants avoided other red and processed meats. 

Interestingly, all three groups had improved cholesterol levels, with the wagyu group showing a 7.0 to 5.5 mmol/L drop. They also reduced waist size and body fat. These improvements were consistent across all three diets. 

Lead researcher David Camero Smith concluded: “Wagyu is known equally for its tenderness and high levels of fat, and our research focused on the specifics of how this fat might impact on heart health. However, eating Wagyu three times each week for eight weeks had no negative impact on the risk factors of heart disease, including cholesterol levels and blood pressure.  Our research demonstrates that as part of a healthy lifestyle, enjoying premium New Zealand grass-fed Wagyu beef​ is not detrimental to heart health in men.”

Sourcing New Zealand Beef

New Zealand beef is widely available in markets around the world and across America. The New Zealand beef and lamb association has a helpful store locator here

And if you’re interested in the premium New Zealand wagyu beef mentioned above, First Light Farms has their own store locator here

New Zealand Beef Organ Meats

So far we’ve mostly been talking about the muscle meat of New Zealand cows. It’s worth mentioning New Zealand beef is equally prized for the superior quality of its organ meats

Organ meats are packed with hard-to-find vitamins and minerals, and may be an essential component of a well-formulated carnivore diet. 

At this time it may be difficult to source fresh New Zealand beef organ meats. 

However, you can get the benefits of New Zealand beef organ meat in the form of beef organ meat supplements and beef liver supplements

New Zealand Beef: The Takeaway

New Zealand provides the ideal environment to raise happy healthy 100% grass-fed and GMO-free beef. 

Choosing New Zealand grass-fed beef supports sustainable farming practices, animal welfare, individual health, and a traditional ranching culture that goes back generations.

Beef Spleen

Beef Spleen: Nutrition, Benefits, and Supplements

With the rising popularity of nose-to-tail eating, beef spleen is another almost-forgotten organ meat that’s making a comeback. 

In animals, the spleen promotes a healthy immune system. And when eaten as food, it offers many health-promoting benefits. Many cultural groups have used beef spleen to support their immune systems. 

Let’s explore the benefits of beef spleen, while taking a closer look at its specific bounty of nutrients.


What is Beef Spleen?

Beef spleen is simply the spleen of a cow. In this context, we’re obviously talking about using spleen as food.

A cow’s spleen has three primary jobs. It:

  • Breaks down old or damaged RBC’s (red blood cells)
  • Produces white blood cells to fight infections
  • Stores blood in case of sudden demand 

Historically speaking, humans have either eaten spleen or processed it into spleen extract, which contains most of the organ’s active ingredients. 

In recent times both medical professionals and laypeople have used spleen and its extract to strengthen the blood, recover from cancer, and prevent autoimmune disease.

But are these uses legitimate? Let’s look at beef spleen’s nutrition values to find out. 

Beef Spleen Nutrition

Like nearly every  organ meat (besides polar bear liver which has enough vitamin A to kill 52 adults!), beef spleen is incredibly nutritious. It’s rich in protein, cholesterol, heme iron, and more. Here are the full nutritious facts: 

Beef spleen nutrition: 100 grams

NutrientAmount% RDV
Calories102 calories4%
Total fat3 grams5%
Saturated fat1 gram5%
Cholesterol 263 mg88%
Sodium126 mg5%
Potassium274 mg8%
Carbohydrates1.1 grams0%
Protein18.3 grams37%
Vitamin A00%
Vitamin D00%
Vitamin E0 mg0%
Vitamin K0 mcg0%
Folate3.3 mcg0.8%
Niacin7.2 mg42%
Riboflavin0.4 mg22%
Thiamine0.1 mg3%
Vitamin B60.1 mg4%
Vitamin B126 mg95%
Vitamin C38 mg76%
Calcium2.2 mg1%
Iron19.6 mg248%
Magnesium24.0 mg6%
Phosphorus305 mg30%
Zinc2.2 mg14%
Copper0.2 mg8%


Beef spleen is a good source of dietary cholesterol. Just 100 grams of spleen contains 88% of your recommended daily value.

And no, dietary cholesterol isn’t unhealthy — contrary to conventional belief.[3] [4] [5] [6] The human body relies on both endogenous and exogenous cholesterol to produce important steroid hormones like progesterone, pregnenolone, and DHEA. These “youth-associated” hormones oversee processes as fundamental as cellular regeneration.

The importance of cholesterol is highlighted when you look at what happens when you don’t get enough of it. Low cholesterol levels are correlated with depression, brain fog, and other mental health issues.

Despite the vilification of cholesterol, we’ve known of its importance since at least 1948. Back then the famous Framingham heart study found that people with supposedly optimal cholesterol levels had lower “verbal fluency, attention/concentration, abstract reasoning, and a composite score measuring multiple cognitive domains” than those with ‘high’ cholesterol did.  

You can learn more about cholesterol myths and truths here


Beef spleen is also rich in niacin AKA vitamin B3. A 100-gram serving contains nearly half your RDV. Niacin plays an important role in cognitive function and also helps your body utilize carbohydrates for fuel. This is important, even on a low-carb keto and carnivore diet  because certain brain and muscle cells cannot derive energy from alternative energy molecules called ketones


Just 100 grams of beef spleen contains 250% your iron RDV. Iron helps your body produce fully oxygenated blood. 

The quality of your dietary iron intake is important, too. Spleen contains highly bioavailable heme iron. Up to 35% of the heme iron you ingest is utilized by your body — many times more than the iron provided by plant-based products.


3 ounces of beef spleen contains nearly all the vitamin B12 you’ll need for the day. If you complement this small portion of spleen with some muscle meat, eggs, and dairy, you’ll meet the full RDV with ease. 

And don’t worry about getting too much B12 — most people find a little bit extra to be pleasantly energizing. Your body easily filters out the excess.  

Other Nutrients Unique to Spleen

Beef spleen contains certain small proteins, called peptides

The top spleen-specific peptides, tuftsin and splenopentin, may stimulate your immune system’s macrophages (infection-fighting white blood cells) en route to improving overall immunity.  

Finally, beef spleen’s peptides and other proteins may enhance the activity of your body’s “natural killer” (NK) cells. NK cells secrete chemicals that turn on the immunological functions of other cells, making them critical to the initial immune response.

The peptides in spleen are so potent that they can be formulated into an extract called splenin. This extract is used to directly support immune health. 

Splenin was first demonstrated to boost white blood cell counts and ward off infections back in the 1930’s. And it is so effective that it is still used in some parts of Germany.

Beef Spleen Health Benefits 

The immune-boosting effects of beef spleen may be partly attributable to an organ meat principle called like-supports-like. 

In other words, many of spleen’s potential health benefits may stem from its ability to nourish your own spleen. These benefits include:

  • Boosting the immune system
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Promoting blood health
  • Promoting digestion

Sourcing Quality Beef Spleen

Quality is everything when it comes to organ meats. And beef spleen is no exception. Animals who live overly stressful lives may have less nutritious organ meats.

More research is needed in this area, but several fascinating studies on worms give us some hints about the potential quality difference. These studies found that the information present in a worm’s polyamine proteins can be transferred from one creature to the next upon ingestion. 

It’s totally plausible that this concept carries over to other life forms (i.e, cows and humans) — meaning that eating the spleen of a stressed animal may not be ideal.

For these reasons, we’d encourage you to source your beef spleen and other organ meats from a trusted local source. Or from certified grass-fed and finished cows. 

If you live in an area with a local farmer’s market or butcher shop, these are usually the best places to check. 

For those of us who lack access or seek greater convenience, online meat subscriptions like butcher box also offer organ meats and may carry spleen. 

Beef Spleen Supplements

If you’re unsure of your ability to source high-quality beef spleen, then you may want to consider cow spleen specific, or full-spectrum organ meat supplements

When deciding on a supplement, it can be a good idea to consider the source along with other factors. Questions to ask include, does it 

  • Come from grass-fed pasure-raised cows?
  • Have its fat content intact (i.e, be non-defatted)?
  • Contain no fillers, flow agents, or other additives?
  • Come from cows that are hormone and GMO-free?
  • Have its biological activity intact (ie, be freeze-dried)?

How to Cook Beef Spleen

Spleen may be an unusual food for most Americans, but there’s no reason it should stay that way.  The following recipe turns beef spleen into an approachable, enjoyable meal for the whole family. 

Pan-Fried Beef Spleen Ingredients

  • 1lb beef spleen
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • 1 cup coconut flour
  • 1 cup butter/ghee
  • 2 cloves minced garlic 
  • 2 teaspoons ground coriander
  • 1 tablespoon lemon juice

Prep time: 10 minutes

Cook time: 5 minutes


  1. Trim the lining off of the spleen, then cut it into small, one-inch cubes.
  2. Let the cubes soak in a mixture of cold salted water for 2 hours. 
  3. Pat them dry, then season with salt and pepper and coat with flour. 
  4. Place the spleen into a ghee-coated pan on high heat. 
  5. Cook until spleen cubes are golden brown and cooked through, then remove them from the pan. 
  6. Place garlic, coriander, and extra butter in the pan, until they too turn golden brown. 
  7. Return kidney to the pan, sprinkle with lemon juice, and cook for thirty more seconds.
  8. Season with salt and pepper to taste.
  9. Let cool slightly, then enjoy!

Beef Spleen: The Takeaway

Nose-to-tail eating is part of our evolutionary dietary heritage. For nearly 2 million years humans ate mostly meat. And by meat, we mean the whole animal, especially nutrient-dense organs like spleen. 

It’s no coincidence that when you eat even a small portion of organ meats like spleen, liversweetbreads, heart, and brain along with the muscle meats that are popular today, you get an abundance of health promoting nutrients including protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals. 

Beef spleen is rich in vitamins, minerals, and rare peptides that are produced exclusively in its tissue. 

As far as beef spleens effects go, like-supports-like: spleen and its active ingredients may promote your own immune health in a way that other foods fall short. If you haven’t already, consider adding spleen or spleen supplements to your keto or carnivore diet

nose to tail eating

Nose-to-Tail Eating: Everything You Need to Know

If crispy sweetbreads, kidney pie, and sesos (beef brain) tacos wet your chops, you’re on-trend with Nose-to-Tail eating– one of the hottest and healthiest culinary movements.

Though a revival of sorts in America, nose-to-tail eating is the standard in many countries around the world.  At meat markets from South America to the Middle East and Asia, it’s common to see entire animals skillfully butchered and displayed to the delight of enterprising chefs and wise grandmothers alike. 

Nose-to-tail is also the way our ancestors ate for nearly two million years. 

In fact, eating the whole animal including bone marrow and animal brains gave early humans the nutrient dense food they needed to feed the rapid growth of their own brains. 

So we can thank nose-to-tail eating for our evolution into the modern humans we are today!

In this article, we’ll take a closer look at what nose-to-tail eating is, and the benefits it offers our health and the environment. 


What is Nose-to-Tail Eating?

nose to tail meats

Eating only the muscle meat of animals is a recent dietary trend–and it’s confined to industrialized nations. Nose-to-tail eating means not only consuming the muscle, but every other edible part of an animal. 

Nose-to-tail eating: 

  • leaves nothing to waste
  • maximizes nutrition 
  • respects the sources of our food

Nose-to-tail eating is traditional eating. And therefore it constitutes a dietary revival. It’s flag bearers are curious chefs, artisan butchers, and carnivore dieters

Going Nose-to-Tail is Eating Like Our Ancestors

Recent research tells us that for nearly 2 million year our hunter-gatherer ancestors were hyper-carnivorous apex predators.2 

It wasn’t until the last few thousand years that some groups of humans began eating plants with regularity. 

Contemporary research on the diets of existent hunter gatherers shows that they still get on average between 50-70% of their calories from animal sources. With some societies getting up to 99%!  This is a lot considering that there are fewer and smaller animals available to hunt than during the Pleistocene when giant mammals like mastodons roamed the earth. 

When we talk about “animal sources” we’re not mean lean cuts like filet mignon and chicken breast. We’re talking parts like organs, cheeks, skin, and bone marrow

In fact, traditional peoples would often discard lean muscle meat in order to focus on the organs–the most nutrient-dense parts of the animal.

Seminal researcher Weston A. Price made the following observation of Indians living in the Northern Canadian Rockies:

“I found the Indians putting great emphasis upon the eating of the organs of the animals, including parts of the digestive tract. Much of the muscle meat of the animals was fed to the dogs. … The skeletal remains are found as piles of finely broken bone chips or splinters that have been cracked up to obtain as much as possible of the marrow and nutritive qualities of the bones.” Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, 6th Edition, page 260.

Dr. Price discovered that traditional culture’s who ate the whole animal (and who didn’t eat processed foods), were free of what is known as “the diseases of civilization. These include: 

  • Obesity
  • heart disease
  • hypertension
  • type 2 diabetes 
  • epithelial cell cancers
  • inflammatory diseases (including autoimmune diseases, bowel disorders, osteoporosis, infertility, and more)

The phrase “diseases of civilization” refers to how in first-world, wealthy countries, the way we eat and live causes us to die from these chronic diseases. 

Top 8 Benefits of Nose-to-Tail Eating

So if most humans have always eaten nose-to-tail for most of history, and if the diseases that are killing more people around the globe are new and have to do with not eating this way, then all signs point to “Go!”

But for those of you who are still feeling squeamish, let’s take a look at a few top benefits that nose-to-tail eating has to offer. 

1. Like-Supports-Like

The organ meats in a nose-to-tail diet contain very specific compounds that positively affect the corresponding organs in our own bodies. 

For example, beef brain provides several newly discovered nutrients like phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin, brain cell activators, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and various other brain-boosting peptides.  

Beef kidney contains rare amino acids that can make it easier for our own kidneys to do their jobs. 

Beef heart offers an abundance of B vitamins that have a cardioprotective effect. Intake of these B vitamins supports healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels, both keys to heart health.

Hepcidin, a peptide found in beef liver, helps the body absorb and process iron while offering antibacterial properties. Together these factors inhibit the ability of pathogens to adapt to our immune responses. It also fends off bacterial infections.

2. Increased Energy 

The kidneys, liver,heart, and spleen are loaded with heme iron. This is iron in its most bioavailable form, meaning it’s easily absorbed and used by the body.

This makes nose-to-tail eating especially beneficial for the 10 million Americans struggling with iron deficiency. 

Iron deficiency is often the root cause of chronic fatigue and low energy. Nose-to-tail eating can reverse iron deficiency and restore your energy levels. 

Organ meats are all a fantastic source of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) which has been shown to boost energy levels.

3. Boosts the Immune System

Nose-to-tail eating provides your body with bioavailable forms of vitamins A, C, D, and K2–all critical vitamins for healthy immune function. 

If your N-to-T diet includes spleen, you’re doing your immune system a particular service. 

In fact, spleen is so potent when it comes to immune support that it’s often offered in extract to people suffering from low white blood cell counts and cancer.

It’s worth noting that if you’re on a carnivore diet  organ meats are one of the only animal based sources of vitamin C. 

4. Promotes Weight Loss 

When you eat nose-to-tail you’re getting significant helpings of the fats found in organ meats. 

These nose-to-tail fats are especially high in the saturated fatty acid called stearic acid. 

Research on stearic acid reveals that it’s associated with improved mitochondrial function, reduced body fat, and increased weight loss.

Nose-to-tail eating also provides your body with a rare compound called Liver Expressed Antimicrobial Peptide (LEAP-2).  LEAP-2 can reduce hunger and weight gain. It also balances blood sugar, especially during periods when your calories are restricted.2 

This makes nose-to-tail eating a fantastic combination with intermittent fasting practices. 

5. Replaces Depleted Nutrients

Most people rely on fruits and vegetables to get their vitamins and minerals. 

What most people don’t know is that plants contain hundreds of plant toxins that can cause inflammation and disease, along with antinutrients that can leach nutrients from your body. 

At the same time, over the last 50 years, the nutrient contents of most fruits and vegetables are in sharp decline.

And if you think multivitamins will fill the void, think again. 

As Dr. Eliseo Guallar, from Johns Hopkins School of Public Health explains that the likelihood that multivitamins have tangible health benefits is “very small — and also we have no clear proof yet of such benefit.”

All these findings confirm what traditional cultures have known since time immemorial: Nose-to-tail eating is the key to providing our bodies with the most bioavailable nutrients in perfect proportions for our health and longevity.  

6. Eating Nose to Tail Helps Balance Out Amino Acids

Muscle meats are high in an essential amino acid called methionine, which can raise homocysteine levels. Homocysteine has been associated with heart disease and cancer.

As an example of nature’s wisdom, the amino acid glycine found in connective tissue is protective against methionine imbalance. At the same time, organ meats are loaded with vitamin B6, vitamin B12, choline, folate, and betaine which support your body’s ability to break down homocysteine.  

One of the best ways to get more glycine is from bone broth. It’s also a great “doorway” nose-to-tail food–providing maximum whole-animal benefits with the least amount of preparation and taste adaptation. 

7. Lower Food Cost

Organ meats are some of the lowest cost meats available. In fact, there’s such a small market for organ meats in America that most of them get exported to other countries or are simply wasted. 

For instance, most pasture-raised ribeye steak comes in at around $17 per pound. But organ meats can range from less than $2 a pound to $10 on the high-end. 

One of the most cost-effective ways to eat nose-to-tail is to buy a share of an animal from a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program. 

Another highly cost-effective way to support nose to tail practices, get its nutrition benefits, and save on time, is by taking organ meat supplements.

8. Less Food Waste

Nearly ⅓ of all the food we produce is trashed before it’s eaten. Not only are the nutrients wasted, but so too are the water and fossil fuels that go into their production. 

Recent research has found that if we increase our consumption of organ meats to only two meals a week, we would reduce global greenhouse gases from livestock from 14.5% to 12.5%.

A couple of percentage points might not sound like a lot. But on a global level, this is huge! It’s a reduction of 994 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide per year or the equivalent of taking 214 million cars off the road every year. 

These numbers could be even more profound if we choose to source our meat from regenerative farms. In regenerative practices, animals eat grass instead of grain and fertilize the fields with their poop. 

A great example of this is White Oak Pastures in Georgia. For each kilogram of meat the farm produces, they sequester 3.5kg of carbon dioxide in the soil. 

Nose-to-tail For Keto and Carnivore

When going keto and carnivore there’s a tendency to focus on the meats we’re familiar with. These tend to be lean muscle. 

However, the key to a well-formulated keto and carnivore diet is to get enough fat and micronutrients. 

Keep in mind that keto and carnivore are both extremely low-carb diets that switch your body from using carbs for fuel to breaking down fatty acids into energy molecules called ketones. 

This means you’ll need to get around 80% of your total calories from fat! 

Excellent nose-to-tail keto fats include tallow, and lard. While organ meats like liver, kidney, sweetbreads, and beef heart will give your body an abundance of vitamins and minerals. 

And you won’t have to eat much of them to get their benefits. You can treat organ meats like a true multivitamin, consuming only a few ounces each week. 

Nose-to-Tail Shopping List

nose to tail

Nose-to-tail eating means incorporating organ meats and less-common animal parts like liver, bone marrow, and salmon roe

Example Nose-To-Tail Food List

RuminantsPorkPoultryfishseafoodOrgan meatsWild meatsFatEggsDairyFruits and Veggies




All typesChicken



Game hen






Mahi mahi




Arctic Char








Salmon Roe









Beef Liver

Chicken liver









Bone Marrow














Chicken eggs

Duck eggs

Goose Eggs

Ostrich eggs

Quail Eggs




Creme Fraiche




Roots & fruits:

Low-carb berries: blackberries raspberries



Low-toxin veggies: sweet potatoes potatoes














Nose-to-Tail Shopping List 

Food# of MealsLbs per MealTotal lbs to buy
Ribeye Steak212
Pork Belly212
Beef short ribs212
Creme FraichePart of 32 tablespoons per meal1 container
80/20 Ground Bison1.75.75
LiverPart of 2100g per meal200g
Bone MarrowPart of 2100g per meal200g
EggsPart of 3(3 eggs per meal)9 eggs total
Wild Salmon2.51
Oysters2 meals (Part of)3 oysters per meal6

Nose-to-tail 1 Week Sample Meal Plan: 

Day 1Day 2Day 3Day 4Day 5Day 6Day 7
LunchRibeye Steak and EggsEggs and Salmon pan-fried with tallowPork Belly

3 Eggs

8 oz. Pork bellyGround bison with butter and 2 eggs4 scrambled eggs with  tallow and creme fraiche8 oz 

Pork belly 

Dinner3 oz. Beef liver fried in tallow

3 oz Wild salmon baked with creme fraiche

Ground bison fried in tallow

With 3 oz bone marrow

Beef bone marrow and short ribsBeef burger with tallow and raw

Oysters (3)

8 oz wild salmon baked with creme fraicheBeef short ribs with tallow8 oz

Salmon baked with creme fraiche

3 oz liver friend in tallow

Nutrient Analysis of 1 Day of Nose-to-tail Eating

Let’s take a look at the nutrient analysis of all food you’d eat on day #7 of our nose-to-tail menu:

8 oz. Pork Belly8 oz Wild Salmon1 tbsp tallow3 oz Liver2 tbsp 

Creme Fraiche

total% Daily Value
Vitamin C.8mg00.7mg12mg13.5mg18%
Vitamin A24IU1024IU016899IU125IU18072IU602%%
Vitamin D003.6IU49IU052.6IU6.5%
Vitamin E.8mg3.4mg.3mg.5mg05mg33%
Vitamin K0.7µg03.9µg.4µg5µg5%
Vitamin B1.8mg.4mg0.2mg01.4mg107%
Vitamin B2.8mg.4mg03.4mg04.6mg353%
Vitamin B39.9mg20mg017.5mg047.4mg296%
Vitamin B5.8mg2.3mg06.9mg.2mg10.2mg204%
Vitamin B6.4%.7mg01.0mg02.1mg177%
Vitamin B121.6µg17µg083.1µg0101.7µg4237%

Nose-to-Tail Eating: The Bottom Line

Nose-to-tail eating is a nutritional and environmental reckoning. 

It takes into account how our Standard American Diet of processed junk is the root cause of most of our diseases and a key factor in the degradation of our environment. 

Eating nose-to-tail is a way to align ourselves with ancestral ways of eating. It’s no coincidence that whole animals provide all the essential nutrients we need at perfect proportions and in the most bioavailable forms. 

Bon appetit! 




beef brains

Beef Brain: Nutrition, Benefits, How to Eat it, and More

Liver, kidney, sweetbreads…think you’ve tried it all?  If you haven’t tried beef brain, you could still be missing out. 

We’ll be the first to admit that eating animal brains might not be your idea of fun. But beef brain is highly nutritious — and surprisingly tasty if done right! 

It’s also far more popular than many people think–in fact, it’s a mainstay at most taco stands where it’s called sesos. It’s also a standard on menus ranging from South America to Morocco, and France.

Let’s explore the nutrition and health benefits of this highly nutritious yet overlooked organ meat, whether you consume it fresh or as a convenient organ meat supplement



What is Beef Brain?

As you might expect from its name, beef brain is simply the brain of a cow or calf. In the context of this article, we’re talking about beef brain as a food

Eating brain might sound strange at first, but humans have been doing it for eons. Some archeologists believe that animal brain was among the first human foods. 

With our stone weapons and tools, we would’ve been uniquely capable of accessing an animal’s nutrient-laden brain.  

Beef Brain Nutrition

Like virtually every other organ meat, beef brain is simply loaded with nutrients. It shines the brightest in the fat-soluble nutrient department. Here are its nutrition facts. 

Beef Brain: 100 grams

NutrientAmount% RDV
Calories141 calories5.6%
Total fat10.3 grams11%
Saturated fat2.3 grams2.3%
Cholesterol 3,010 mg1,003%
Sodium126 mg5%
Potassium274 mg8%
Carbohydrates1.1 grams0%
Protein10.9 grams22%
Vitamin A160 IU3%
Vitamin D00%
Vitamin E2.1 mg11%
Vitamin K0.1 mcg0%
Folate6.3 mcg1.7%
Niacin4.2 mg6%
Riboflavin0.2 mg13%
Thiamine0.1 mg6%
Vitamin B60.1 mg11%
Vitamin B1210.1 mg158%
Vitamin C10.5 mg18%
Calcium9.0 mg4%
Iron2.3 mg14%
Magnesium12.0 mg3%
Phosphorus335 mg36%
Zinc1.1 mg7%
Copper0.2 mg11%
Choline491 mg89%

As you can see in the chart, beef brain is an especially rich source of choline, cholesterol, and DHA. 


Choline is an essential nutrient that benefits our muscles, liver, and brain. Organ meats like beef brain are one of nature’s best sources of choline. Considering that most people on the standard American diet (SAD) are deficient in choline, beef brain may be effective in restoring choline levels.



DHA is one of the most essential of all the essential fatty acids. While most people think seafood when they think of the omega 3 fats, beef brain is also an excellent source of DHA. Just 100 grams of cooked beef brain contains over 700 milligrams of this essential fat. That’s around 200% of the RDA. 

Studies show that DHA may offer anti-inflammatory properties while relieving stress, and promoting cognition and mood.  DHA-rich foods like beef brain and salmon roe have been prized by pregnant women for millenia. 

Research shows us why: a mother’s DHA intake may boost the critical thinking skills of her future children. .  


Beef brain is second only to pork brain when it comes to providing high-quality dietary cholesterol. 100 grams of brain contains ten times the cholesterol RDV. 

Contrary to popular belief, cholesterol in our diets isn’t the health concern that it was previously believed to be. Our bodies produce — and use — large amounts of cholesterol in order to synthesize important hormones like pregnenolone and DHEA.

Adequate serum cholesterol levels are correlated with happiness and intelligence.

One study of otherwise healthy women found that those with substandard cholesterol levels were more likely to suffer from depression or other mental health problems.

Perhaps the most convincing evidence of cholesterol’s benefits is found in the Framingham heart study of 1948. This study found that people with ‘ideal’ cholesterol levels had lower “verbal fluency, attention/concentration, abstract reasoning, and a composite score measuring multiple cognitive domains” than those with ‘high’ cholesterol did.  Cholesterol is even good for the skin.

Other Unique Nutrients

Beef brain contains several nutrients that the scientific community has only just begun to learn about. These nutrients include phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, brain cell activators, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and other brain supporting peptides and factors.  

These brain-specific nutrients also support the fascinating findings showing that each organ you consume may provide specific nutrients to the corresponding organs in your body! 

Beef Brain Health Benefits 

The unique nutrient profile of beef brain means that it may benefit various facets of your health. They make a great addition to your carnivore diet food list, and can be worked into standard diets. 

In a perfect example of the like-supports-like concept behind nearly all organ meats, the nutrients and growth factors in beef brain means it may benefit your own brain’s health and processing speed. 

Beef brain may support: 

  • Overall brain health 
  • Mood and well-being
  • Long-term potentiation
  • Working memory
  • Neurogenesis

Beef brain may also benefit athletes and other fitness enthusiasts. Assuming one’s thyroid is healthy enough, the huge amounts of cholesterol it contains can be converted into large amounts of DHEA, progesterone, pregnenolone, and testosterone. 

These “youth-associated hormones” can help your body keep its cortisol levels in check and adapt to the stressfulness of exercise.

Sourcing Quality Beef Brain

When it comes to beef brain, fresher is always better. Many of the most precious fats in beef brain are subject to degradation by sunlight and air.

Beef brain should also be sourced from younger cows to eliminate the risks of mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy). 

Mad cow and other prion diseases are extremely rare these days,  and you can rest asure that they take long enough to develop that they’re virtually nonexistent in younger animals.

If you’re obtaining your beef brain via an encapsulated product, look for products that checks all the boxes: 

  • 3rd party testing for microbes
  • 3rd party veterinarian inspection
  • Freeze-dried to preserve nutrients
  • Sourcing from young calves
  • Organic certification

Doctor Kiltz’s multi-organ supplement is one of the only supplements on the market to offer quality New Zealand beef brain.

Cooking Beef Brain

Beef brain might not sound like food to many people in the West, but it’s highly regarded in other countries. 

In Morocco the saying goes something like: “everything is good in a sheep and a calf.” In other words, nose-to-tail eating is the way to go. 

So perhaps it’s only fitting that our beef brain recipe, El Mokh Mchermel, hails from the heart of Morocco. This dish’s marinade transforms beef brain into an approachable, genuinely tasty meal.

Moroccan Calf Brain (El Mokh Mchermel)

Prep time: 10 minutes

Cooking time: 30 minutes

Marinating time: 1 hour

Total time: 1 hour 40 minutes


  • 1 calf brain
  • 1 cup water
  • 1 tbsp vinegar/red wine
  • 2 cloves garlic (grated)
  • 3 tbsp chopped cilantro
  • 2 tomatoes (optional)
  • 1 tsp sweet paprika
  • 1 tsp ground cumin
  • 1/8 tsp cayenne
  • 3 tbsp olive oil
  • 1 teaspoon salt


  • Prepare the brain by covering it with boiling salt water for several minutes. 
  • Peel the outer transparent membrane off slowly. 
  • Trim off any coagulated blood or veins. Rinse thoroughly.
  • Cut the brain into six pieces. 
  • Marinating the brain in a mixture of the above spices and water. Cover, then let sit in the fridge for 1 hour. 
  • Cook the brain in a pot over medium heat, adding water, oil, spices, and garlic.
  • Add cilantro to the sauce after 15 minutes.
  • Cover and turn the heat down to a simmer for 15 more minutes. 
  • Add your vinegar or red wine, then turn off the heat. 
  • Scoop out the brain, drizzle with extra olive oil, then serve.  

Eating Animal Brains

Other animal brains can be eaten, too. Sheep and lamb’s brains are just as popular as beef brain in Morocco. 

In France, eating veal brain is the go-to; in Mexico, brain is made into quesadillas and tacos. Some parts of the American South also routinely eat animal brains.  

Regardless of which animal we’re talking about or how said animal’s brain is prepared, brains have similar nutritional characteristics. They’re predictably high in B vitamins, essential fatty acids, cholesterol, and phosphorus.  

Addressing Concerns About Brain

The mainstream coverage of mad cow disease and other bovine-human prion diseases has scared some people away from eating beef brain. 

Thankfully, mad cow disease is not a legitimate cause for concern. It’s not around anymore — and even if it was, it would only be a problem among older beef, not the young calves that brain is sourced from.

Beef Brain: The Takeaway

Beef brain is an often-overlooked yet extremely nutritious food. 

Brain may not be on the top ten list of foods to bring to a potluck, but don’t let its eccentricity discourage you. 

When prepared right, it’s more than just bearable (probably tastier than those mixed green salads you used to think were superfoods). If you haven’t already, consider adding beef brain to your keto/carnivore diet! For tips on how to create a well-formulated carnivore diet meal plan, click here. 


carb addiction

Carb Addiction: What it is, How to Kick it

Is carb addiction real? 

Maybe you’ve found yourself on a late-night run to the grocery store for boxes of sugary cereal. Or you can’t stop eating that pint of ice cream until your spoon pierces the bottom. Or you simply can’t imagine life without bread! 

Most of us crave carbs. And when we devour carbs we feel happy–but only for a little while. Eventually, we need to eat more and more carbs just to feel ok. 

For millions of people, this consistent and increasing stream of carbs can lead to negative health consequences like obesity, diabetes, chronic inflammation, heart disease, mood disorders, and hormonal imbalances. Yet we keep coming back for more. 

This craving-reward-negative consequence cycle suggests that yes, carbs are addictive. 

In this article, we’ll explore the evolutionary origins of carb addiction, along with recent research looking at the brain chemistry of carb addiction. Finally, we’ll offer tips to help you kick it. 


What are Carbs? 

Carbs (short for carbohydrates), are one of the three macronutrients in food. The other two are fat and protein. 

Each of these three nutrients can provide your body with energy (calories). 

Carbohydrates are the basis of most foods in the standard American diet. All grains (refined and whole), sugars, fruits, and veggies are predominantly carbohydrates. 

Foods as different as bread, popsicles, and celery are mostly carbs. 

They’re each made from the same basic building blocks: single molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. And your body breaks them all down into simple sugar (glucose) in your blood. 

How do I know if I’m Addicted to Carbs? 

As with alcohol and other drugs, you can be addicted to carbs if your consumption meets the following criteria:

  • consuming carbs interferes with numerous areas of your life over a period of time
  • you find it difficult or impossible to stop consuming carbs, and difficult to change behaviour that leads to consuming them 

Addiction is similar across substances because it has to do with chemicals produced in your stomach and intestines that contribute to the production of dopamine in your brain. 

Dopamine affects the pleasure and reward centers in your brain. When these centers are activated it causes cravings for more of the substance that activated them. 

The science of carb addiction focuses on how the food we eat stimulates this circuitry. 

Are Carbs Addictive? What the Science Says

Scientists have only recently started to take the idea of food addiction seriously. 

Their research is aimed at better understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to the rise of obesity, diabetes, and other so-called diseases of civilization. These include heart disease, chronic inflammation, osteoporosis, and many cancers.

It’s worth noting that they’re called the “diseases of civilization” because they are almost non-existent in traditional hunter gatherer societies. 

It’s worth noting–and not a coincidence–that healthy traditional populations relied on high-fat low-carb diets. And of course, processed foods were non-existent.

Most food in the standard American diet is loaded with refined grains and added sugars–making carb addiction an important area of exploration. 

In fact, Americans consume nearly 3 pounds of sugar each week!  

Carb Addiction: An Evolutionary Perspective

From a dietary evolutionary perspective, carb addiction was a helpful survival trait during the vast majority of human history when sweet and carbohydrate-dense food was extremely rare in the natural environment. 

Until a few thousand to a few hundred years ago, none of the fruits and vegetables that we have today existed. And the carb sources were fleeting and seasonal. Occasions when our ancestors came across a ripe fruit-bearing plant or a beehive were few and far between. 

Interestingly, when they did find carbs, our ancestor’s bodies secreted insulin and other hunger hormones that told them to eat as much as possible. And these same binge-cravings occur in the bodies of us modern humans.

But why? 

Let’s consider that one of the main jobs of insulin is turning sugar into fat. 

When the body is craving carbs, what it’s really saying is, “hurry up and store as much fat as possible while this sugar is around.”   

For our ancestors, these rare sugar binges resulted in small amounts of stored fat. Their bodies would eventually break down this fat to use as energy during leaner times and when fasting between successful hunts.

Ketosis is the name for this metabolic state where we break down fat into fuel molecules called ketones.

An abundance of evidence suggests this vision of ancestral eating patterns: For nearly two million years, our ancestors were hyper-carnivorous apex predators who ate mostly meat. 2 This optimized our bodies to feast and to fast between hunts. And to feast on the small amount of carbs when available. 

When we consider the evolutionary roots of carb addiction, it’s no surprise that most of us eat too much of it.

The Carbohydrate Insulin Model of Carb Addiction

Carb Addiction Cycle

‘Carb Addiction’ Cycle

If carb addiction is an evolved trait, then insulin is the key to understanding how it works on a chemical level in the body. 

The vast majority of the carbs we eat from grains, fruits, vegetables, and refined sugars get broken down into glucose (simple sugar). 

Glucose gets sent into our blood, raising blood sugar. The body responds by secreting insulin. 

Insulin’s job is to drive glucose into cells and convert excess sugar into fat.

The key to understanding carb addiction is that insulin triggers hormones and neurochemicals that both increase hunger and heighten the pleasure of sweet tastes.5

Brain Chemistry of Carb Addiction

Research on the brain chemistry of carb addiction looks specifically at these pleasure chemicals and the parts of the brain they activate.  

Hi-GI Carb Addiction

Hi-GI carbs are simple (as opposed to complex carbs) that spike your blood sugar more quickly than complex carbs that take longer to break down. 

A 2013 study by Harvard researcher David Ludwig, found that even when people don’t know what they’re eating, people who consumed high-GI carbs had greater activation of opiate and dopamine receptors in the craving and reward center of the brain.

These are the same “happy” chemicals that make us feel good when we’re spending time with friends and people we love.

Research also shows that repeatedly stimulating the reward center of your brain with high-GI carbs can reset your body fat levels. Your body attempts to preserve the fat you’ve accumulated.

Sugar Addiction

A 2018 analysis of numerous studies on the addictive nature of sugar (a simple carbohydrate) suggests that when we eat sweets we reinforce the neural pathways associated with addiction. This cycle transforms the brain in ways that increase our craving of sugar.

A 2013 study on rats revealed that the rewards experienced by the brain after consuming sugar are even “more rewarding and attractive” than the effects of cocaine.

Another animal study at Connecticut College showed that Oreo cookies activate more neurons in the brain’s pleasure center than cocaine! 

And in case you’re wondering, just like humans, the rats ate the filling first.

Carb Addiction and Mood

The addictive nature of sugar is also evident in a study where rats were made to fast after sugar binging. In these fasted periods the rats had reduced dopamine and anxiety-like behavior.

The link between carb addiction and mood was explored in a study of women prone to emotional eating. 

This part is kind of twisted: Researches induced the women into a sad mood and let them chose between a carb-rich drink or a protein drink. And even when blinded from knowing which drink was which, they were more likely to choose the carb rich drink.

Fructose Addiction

Studies looking superficially at the effects of fructose (the compound that makes up much of the carbs in fruit) found that it prompts insulin resistance, abnormal blood lipid levels, and liver inflammation in much the same way as alcohol. 

The researchers concluded, “fructose creates habituation, and possibly dependence; also paralleling (alcohol)…leading to a “vicious cycle” of excessive consumption and disease consistent with metabolic syndrome.”

The Case Against Carb Addiction

While these studies suggest that some degree of carb addiction is real, some researchers aren’t yet convinced. 

The main argument is that there hasn’t been enough human experiments. Other arguments center on the fact that much of the research is done on simple sugar and high-GI carbs. 

Perhaps the most compelling argument is that it’s not just the carbs themselves that are addictive, but the other ingredients that they’re packaged with that makes certain foods more addictive than others. 

One study looking at food addiction among 1,495 university students found that a combination of unique eating experiences and total calories in a food had greater influence on total calories eaten than sugar content alone.  

These findings are evident when we look at the most addictive foods. 

The Most Addictive Carbs?

To measure food addiction, researchers at Yale created the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS).  

Using this scale researchers discovered that the foods most associated with food addiction had a few things in common: They were mostly high-GI, high fat, and highly processed.

The chart below offers a rundown of the most addictive foods along with their glycemic load (GL).   GL takes into account the GI along with the serving size of a food. This makes it a more accurate measure of blood sugar impact. 

Addictiveness RankingType of FoodGlycemic Load (GL)
5Ice cream14
6French fries21
8Soda (not diet)16

As you can see, aside from cheese, the top 10 most addictive foods are loaded with carbs, refined sugar, and fat. 

This list suggests that the combination of carbs and fat together triggers the most addictive chemical and behavioral responses in people. 

How to Kick Your Carb Addiction

The key to kicking your carb addiction is to realize that overcoming addiction has way more to do with your environment than your willpower.

Before attempting specific diets, the very first step is going into your fridge, freezer, and pantry, and getting rid of all carb-heavy foods. 

After you’ve removed the addictive substance from your surroundings, try implementing some of the following techniques: 

  • Mindful eating practices center on noticing your emotional and environmental triggers non-judgmentally. Simply by noticing the link between craving and eating you can bring in healthier choices
  • Practice a Ketogenic or Carnivore Diet. These high-fat low-to-no-carb diets switch your body from using carbs for energy to using fat for fuel. There is no better or more effective way to reduce carb cravings. 
  • Before going into a carb-loaded situation (birthday party etc) load up on healthy fat and protein-rich superfoods like red meat and eggs
  • Move more! Research shows that getting more active triggers the release of happy chemicals like endorphins and dopamine that can fill the void that you’d otherwise plug with carbs.   Walking, cycling, yoga, and swimming, are all fantastic low-impact ways to achieve a healthy natural high. 

Carb Addiction: The Takeaway

When considering carb consumption in the context of human dietary evolution, along with the emerging clinical evidence, it appears that carb addiction is real. 

Carbs activate neurotransmitters and the reward centers of the brain in similar ways to other addictive substances. 

Addiction to carbs can lead to serious metabolic issues and diseases like diabetes, infertility, heart disease, and various cancers. 

The most addictive carb-rich foods are often highly processed and contain high-GI carbs combined with fat. However, it’s worth noting that fat on its own is not shown to be addictive–rather, fat is satiating.

In fact, a high-fat low-carb diet may be an effective way to reduce carb cravings and help kick your carb addiction.