Physician holds three wooden blocks with IBS acronym. IBS Irrita

The Carnivore Diet for IBS

Early studies and thousands of individual reports suggest that the carnivore diet is a highly effective approach to treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). 

A 2021 study out of Harvard surveying over 2,000 carnivore dieters found that 97% of those with gastrointestinal issues, including IBS, resolved or improved their symptoms.

In this article, we’ll explore what IBS is and why the carnivore diet is so effective in treating it. We’ll also offer a carnivore diet for IBS 7-day meal plan to help you get started. 


What is IBS?

IBS is a bit mysterious–at least from the perspective of mainstream medicine. In fact, the mainstream view is that we don’t know what causes IBS. 

The problem is that when doctors don’t know what causes something, they can’t actually treat the root of it, only the symptoms. 

However, when considering how effective the carnivore diet is at resolving IBS, we can be confident that it is, in part, caused by the modern standard American diet (SAD).

Since mainstream medicine doesn’t identify a cause, the diagnosis is based on the type and prevalence of a set of digestive symptoms. 

Symptoms of IBS include

  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Gas/bloating
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation

People are diagnosed with IBS if these symptoms occur for at least three days in a month for at least three consecutive months.

How Common is IBS

Research from 2021 indicates that  7–16% of Americans have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

While worldwide, it is estimated that between 10–23% of adults suffer from IBS.

Out of all people experiencing IBS, between 60% and 65% are female.

Possible Causes of IBS

Though there is yet to be a consensus, evidence suggests strongly suggests that IBS is related to the Western diet and lifestyle factors. Let’s explore. 

Microbial Overgrowth and Mood Disorders

Studies show that IBS is related to the presence of unhealthy microbes in the gut. 3 While other studies show that it is strongly associated with depression, stress, and anxiety.

This may be a bit of a “chicken or the egg” problem: Diets high in toxic vegetable oils, added sugars, and grains are all associated with microbial overgrowth, gastrointestinal issues, and poor mood and mental health.

While chronic depression, stress, and anxiety often lead to poor eating habits and unhealthy lifestyle choices that can result in microbial overgrowth, intestinal permeability, and exacerbated IBS.

The carnivore diet targets both the mood and microbial factors in IBS. 

diagram of factors associated with IBS


Other studies show that IBS may be triggered by FODMAPS. This is an acronym for  a group of carbohydrates called Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyols. 

High FODMAP foods include all grains, most legumes, and most other popular vegetables. 

FODMAPS are believed to promote intestinal overgrowth associated with chronic inflammation of the gut mucosal lining associated with IBS.

High Carb Diets

Aside from FODMAPS carbs, recent studies simply looking at high-carb diets have found that they promote the growth of harmful proteobacteria while simultaneously reducing beneficial bacteriodetes in the gut. 

Bacteriodetes are important because they protect against endotoxins–toxic substances that are released when bacteria disintegrate–while reinforcing the gut membrane.

How the Carnivore Diet Benefits IBS

As we mentioned above, there haven’t been any direct studies looking at exactly how the carnivore diet resolved IBS. We only have large survey studies of outcomes and the reports of thousands of carnivore diet enthusiasts. 

That said, we do know enough about what causes IBS, and what the carnivore diet both removes and contributes to your diet to have a good idea of why it is so effective. 

Here’s a rundown; 

  • The carnivore diet is a ketogenic diet. Animals studies have shown that keto reduces the harmful effects of stress on the gut microbiome of rats with irritable bowel syndrome
  • Removes most carbs, including FODMAPS, which have been directly linked to increased IBS symptoms 
  • Eliminates lectins: Studies show that these inflammatory plant proteins cause leaky gut and IBS
  • Eating meat is strongly associated with lower incidences of depression (depression is strongly associated with IBS) 5
  • Gut reset: The removal of fermentable fibers and carbohydrates dramatically reduces harmful bacteria. Combined with removing plant toxins, the carnivore diet allows the gut lining to heal and promotes the restoration of a healthy microbiome
  • More vital nutrients: Animal products are the most nutrient-dense foods on earth, providing of fatty the micronutrients your body needs for vital for healthy immune response, and 


7-Day Carnivore Diet for IBS Meal Plan

Day 1Day 2Day 3Day 4Day 5Day 6Day 7
Ribeye Steak smothered in blue chees, Eggs+

raw oysters

Eggs and bacon+

Salmon pan-fried basted with butter

70/30 ground beef covered in butter and sour cream+

soft boiled eggs


Braised Pork belly+

Raw oysters

Picanha steak with blue cheese butter+

Duck Liver Foie Gras

Proscuitto and cheese charcuterie+

Rack of lamb dipped in own fat drippings and butter


Beef short ribs+

Prawns/shrimp drenched in butter

The Carnivore Diet for IBS: The Bottom Line

IBS is a group of digestive disorders linked to bacterial overgrowth and mood disorders. 

Both of these causes have their roots in the modern Western diet loaded with sugar, plant toxins, and industrial seed “vegetable” oils. 

The carnivore diet is a remarkably effective approach to overcoming IBS because it removes the carbs, FODMAPS, and toxins that lead to IBS. And it replaces these dietary stressors with healthy, nourishing fats, proteins, and micronutrients that reset your microbiome, reduce inflammation, and repair your intestinal tissue.

top view of milk cream in a container on table .

Carnivore Diet Ice Cream: Recipes, Benefits, and Tips

One of the great gifts of the carnivore diet is that when you cut out hyper-palatable, processed, sugar-sweetened junk, you begin to truly taste your food again. Cue the homemade carnivore diet ice cream. This sugar-free frosty treat tunes you into the rich, surprisingly sweet, yet low-carb flavor of fresh heavy cream.

In this article, you’ll find a couple of delicious high-fat, low-carb homemade carnivore diet ice cream recipes. And we’ll also highlight some of its health benefits.

Can You Have Dairy on the Carnivore Diet? 

Before jumping into the recipe, it’s worth taking a moment to address the question of dairy on the carnivore diet

Since a carnivore diet calls for consuming only animal products, and since dairy is an animal product, it is technically allowed on carnivore. 

However, lower-fat dairy, like milk, is high in carbs, and carnivore is a high-fat low-carb diet. 

Additionally, many people come to carnivore in order to overcome digestive issues and food allergies. And dairy can be irritating to some people.  5 

For these reasons, many people begin the carnivore diet with a strict elimination protocol of red meat, salt, and water.  

After 30-90 days on the “Lion Diet,” as this approach is called, it’s common for people to reintroduce raw and full-fat dairy. 

But, if like the majority of people, you digest dairy just fine, then feel free to enjoy this carnivore diet ice cream from the start. 

It’s also worth noting that heavy cream provides special fatty acids like Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), which has been shown to support heart health and offer powerful anti-inflammatory effects. [16]  [15]  [23]

Boost Your Fat Intake on Keto and Carnivore

The carnivore diet is an extremely low-carb way of eating–meat has essentially zero carbs. 

When you cut carbs you need to get most of your calories from fat. This is because of a metabolic principle known as the “protein constraint,” which refers to the fact that we can only get around 35% of our calories from protein before suffering protein poisoning. The other 65-70% of calories need to come from fat. 

This makes Kiltz’s homemade ice cream a delicious way to dramatically boosting your fat intake to meet your carnivore maco ratios. 

Guilt Free Every Day (No Sugar) Kiltz’s Carnivore Ice Cream Recipe

This no-sugar carnivore ice cream recipe is so pure and nourishing that it can be eaten every day, even for breakfast. 

The vanilla is optional–if you’re going strict carnivore go ahead and leave it out. 

Even without sweeteners or vanilla, it’s still surprisingly sweet, especially when you’ve become accustomed to the carnivore diet. 


  • 1 Pint of high-quality heavy cream, best from grass-fed, pastured, and/or local sources
  • 1 egg or 5 egg yolks (pasture raised is best)–egg yolks will make it richer and more custard-like, yum!
  • optional: 1 Vanilla Bean (or vanilla extract)
  • optional: salt to taste – start with 1-3 pinches (1/16 to 1/4 tsp) of sea/Himalayan salt

Kiltz’s Guilt-Free Everyday Carnivore Ice Cream Nutrition



  • combine egg, salt, and vanilla (optional) in a large bowl and whisk thoroughly
  • combine and whisk heavy cream with egg mixture
  • pour the mixture into your ice cream maker and follow the specific instructions of your ice cream maker

Follow Along with Dr. Kiltz as He Makes His Guilt Free Keto Ice Cream

Original Kiltz’s Keto Ice Cream Recipe (Treat Version w/ Sugar)

For those of you practicing less restrictive low-carb diets like the BEBBIIS diet, and various other ketogenic diets, this one is for you. 

This ecipe calls for only a small amount of sugar or alternative sweeteners like honey or maple syrup. 

If you’re on a pure carnivore or zero carb diet, consider this a treat/cheat. 

This recipe makes four servings. Per serving this recipe contributes 

  • 6.5 grams of carbs 
  • 44.1 grams of nourishing fat 

Most people can handle these carbs, and the trade-off in terms of fat-boost is well worth it. 


Makes 1 pint (4 servings)

  • 1 Pint of high-quality heavy cream (preferably grass-fed, local, and/or organic)
  • 1 egg or 5 egg yolks (pasture raised is best). Egg yolks will give it a richer, more custardy texture. Egg yolks are also the portion of eggs that have the most nutrients. 
  • 1-2 TBSP of granulated pure cane sugar. You can also substitute sugar for honey, maple syrup, or alternative sweetener). Cane sugar contributes 13 grams of carbs per tablespoon. This comes out to as little as 3 grams per serving (¼ pint)
  • 1 Vanilla Bean (or vanilla paste/extract)
  • Optional: Salt to taste – start with 1-3 pinches (1/16 to 1/4 tsp) of sea/Himalayan salt

Kiltz’s Original Keto Ice Cream Nutrition


  • combine egg (or egg yokes), salt, sugar, and vanilla in a large bowl. Whisk together 
  • Whisk heavy cream into the egg mixture 
  • Pour mixture into an ice cream maker and follow instructions specific to your ice cream maker 

Follow Along With Dr. Kiltz’s How To Video

Pro Tip #1: Use Raw Heavy Cream

Raw heavy cream may offer numerous benefits over pasteurized cream. 

Studies have shown that when children regularly consume raw dairy they are 50% less likely to develop allergies and 41% less likely to develop asthma. [9]

Raw dairy has also been shown to protect against various illnesses due to what scientists call “naturally immunizing effects.”[10]

In raw dairy, the proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins are 100% intact, and levels of vitamin A, E, zinc, calcium, iron, and B vitamins are substantially higher.

Pro Tip #2: Use A2 Heavy Cream

If possible, source raw A2 dairy. Most dairy contains A1 casein protein.

In the body, A1 casein protein is broken down into beta-casomorphin-7. This peptide has been shown to damage the pancreas and set off autoimmune responses throughout the body. [3] [4] [5] [6]

 A2 dairy has been associated with less digestive discomfort and does not get broken down into BC7. 5

Carnivore Diet Ice Cream: The Bottom Line

If you’re craving ice cream on the carnivore diet, these recipes are not only satisfying but nourishing. 

Carnivore diet ice cream, even with a little sugar from time to time, may be just the treat you need to keep you on the carnivore wagon while leveling up your fat/protein ratios.

Portrait of a handsome sports man in black t-shirt biting raw meat steak indoors

What is the Raw Meat Carnivore Diet: Benefits and Risks

The carnivore diet calls for eating only meat and other animal products. This marks a return to the way our ancestors ate for millennia. And the raw meat carnivore diet is seen by some carnivore enthusiasts as the apex of ancestral eating. This makes sense when considering that humans were hypercarnivorous apex predators thriving on raw meat for over a million years before our species learned to cook with fire. 

But just because our ancestors ate and thrived on raw meat, does that mean it’s healthier for us modern humans? 

In this article, we’ll explore the raw carnivore diet by looking at the rationale behind it, along with the possible benefits and drawbacks. Let’s dig in. 


What is the Raw Meat Carnivore Diet? 

It’s all in the name: The raw carnivore diet means eating only raw animal products. 

If you’re practicing the raw “Lion,” carnivore elimination diet of red meat, salt, and water, “raw” refers exclusively to ruminant meats, like beef, bison, lamb, and elk. 

A more inclusive approach to raw meat carnivore incorporates raw fatty fish, shellfish, and raw cheese and cream

Keep in mind that chicken and pork are almost never eaten raw since these meats are much more likely to contain harmful pathogens.5

Raw vs. Cooked Meat? 

Raw carnivore proponents believe that raw meat has more nutrients and that they are more readily absorbed in the body. 

Does science support these views? 

Well, the jury is still out. There haven’t been any human studies on the benefits or drawbacks of eating raw meat. The lack of human research is due to the prevailing belief that raw meat contains too many pathogens to experiment with it safely. Yet raw meat is on menus across the world–beef tartare, anyone? 

So there seems to be a disconnect between nutritional fears and actual human eating habits. 

For now, most of the people promoting the raw carnivore diet are ancestral eating enthusiasts taking their personal experimentation to another level. 

However, they often cite a few modern studies on nutrient depletion from cooking, and a couple of classic animal experiments–more on these below. 

Nutrients: Raw vs. Cooked

There are studies that support the view that cooking meat reduces the presence of certain vitamins and minerals, including

However, these same studies also show that levels of important minerals, including copper, zinc, and iron, actually increase with cooking.

In one widely cited 2009 study, researchers compared rats fed raw and cooked meat or sweet potatoes. They then tracked changes in body mass and exercise performance. 

The researchers determined that cooked meat provided more energy than raw meat and that hungry mice had a much stronger preference for cooked food.

Fewer Carcinogens

Meat cooked at high temperatures has the potential to form a few compounds that have been found to be carcinogenic at high doses. These compounds include, Advanced Glycation End-Products, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Heterocyclic Amines.

These compounds have been found to be carcinogenic in animal studies where the subjects were fed extremely high levels that even BBQ enthusiasts wouldn’t come close to. 

While in human studies, the link between increased consumption of well-cooked meats and cancer is inconclusive.

Whether the risk is real or not, on a raw meat diet, you don’t have to think about it. Raw meat is free of these potentially harmful compounds–though it may contain other harmful pathogens. 

Pottinger’s Cats

Back in the 1930s, Francis Pottenger, Jr. was using cats as part of experiments looking for links between tuberculosis and adrenal gland deficiencies. 

Pottinger originally fed his cats a diet of cooked meat, bones, and organ meats. Sounds good, right? Not so fast…

As the number of his test subjects outgrew his original food source, he brought in a new source that provided raw meat. To Pottinger’s surprise, the cats fed raw food showed remarkably better health outcomes. 

Naturally, this piqued Pottinger’s scientific interest, and for the next 10 years, he diligently tested and documented the multigenerational effects of raw vs. cooked diets. 

The food sources he tested included raw and cooked meat and raw and pasteurized milk.

To sum up his findings, Pottinger discovered that cats fed raw meat and milk were remarkably healthy. While the health of cats fed cooked foods dramatically deteriorated to the point of near extinction after only four generations. 

The dramatic health declines seen with generations of cats eating cooked meat, included: 

  • dental infections 
  • Mother cats had difficulty carrying offspring full-term
  • Higher rates of miscarriages and infant mortality
  • Mother cats were often too weak to nurse
  • Mother cats died in labor
  • Kittens were born with varying skeletal structures and weaker bones, and were prone to infections, allergies, and respiratory illnesses.
  • Low energy
  • Smaller in size
  • Anxiety
  • Allergies
  • Poor coat quality

From the first to the third generation of cats fed cooked food, the calcium content in the bones was reduced by 97%.  In other words, the health problems increased as they were passed from generation to generation. 

Pottinger also tested the ability of a raw diet to regenerate health. His experiments yielded positive results, with only minor lingering health issues. 

Now, decades later, Pottinger’s experiments are a source of inspiration for raw carnivore dieters who view our reliance on cooked and processed foods as an epigenetic factor in the dramatic increase of modern diseases known as the “diseases of civilization.” And they view eating raw meat as the best way to reclaim our metabolic health. 

graphic of health degeneration when feeding cats raw vs. cooked food. Pottinger's Cats Study

Source: Dr. Steven Lin

Ugolev’s Raw vs. Cooked Frog Experiment

In 1984 Alexander Ugolev, a Russian scientist who devoted his life to studying digestion conducted an experiment involving two dead frogs. 

Both frogs were dead, but only one was cooked. He placed each frog into a beaker of hydrochloric acid that mimicked the stomach acid of a carnivore. 

The cooked frog remained mostly intact, with only moderate degradation to its surface. 

While the raw frog completely dissolved. 

The difference in the “digestion” of the frogs had to do with a process called “autolysis,” meaning self-destructing. 

When the raw frog came into contact with the acid, ions from the acid penetrated the cells, destroyed the lysosomes, and released the cells’ own enzymes, which themselves began a process of self-digestion. 

diagram of cell undergoing autolysis

The reason autolysis didn’t occur in the cooked frog was that the heat had destroyed the enzymes within the frog’s cells. This meant the acid could only break down external tissues. 

Raw carnivore dieters cite this study to support the idea that since raw meat can digest itself, it is more thoroughly and effortlessly digested than cooked meat.

However, cooked meat digests thoroughly in the human system anyway, so these claims seem to be misguided.  

Is it Safe For People to Eat Raw Meat? 

Some of you may be wondering if humans can even eat raw meat without getting sick. 

Well, the fact that we’re here is a testament to the ability of our ancestors to proliferate on a diet of mostly raw meat for nearly 1.5 million years before we learned to make fire. =

More recently, Inuit and other northern tribes still consume significant amounts of raw meat from caribou, elk, seal, and beluga whale and show remarkably robust health markers.

The Acidity of Our Stomach is Made to Digest Meat

Our evolution as raw meat eaters is reflected in the fact that our stomach acidity is even higher than that of normal carnivores. 

In fact, it’s equal to the acidity of some scavengers. Bathing raw meat in hydrochloric acid allowed our ancestors to eat large animals over a period of days and weeks, even as pathogens accumulated in the meat.

Does this mean you should too? Nope, but it does suggest that you can do just fine on a diet of raw meat if it’s sourced fresh, and handled minimally by a reputable purveyor. 

It is worth noting that various studies have found that raw beef can contain illness-causing bacteria, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. All of these pathogens can cause food poisoning, and all are destroyed by cooking.

But let’s not forget that despite these risks, raw carnivorous fare is safe enough to be a mainstay on the menus of the world’s best restaurants. 

Common Raw Meat Dishes

Carpaccio of beef on a plate with mustard and spices

Some common raw meat dishes from around the world include:

  • Steak tartare: minced raw beef steak mixed with raw egg yolk
  • Tuna tartare: raw, chopped tuna 
  • Carpaccio: an Italian dish of raw, thinly sliced beef or fish
  • Pittsburgh”blue” steak: seared on the outside and left completely raw on the inside 
  • Mett: a German delicacy of uncooked minced pork 
  • Sushi and sashimi: raw fish and other sea creatures like urchins and eels
  • Torisashi: thinkly cut strips of chicken, seared on the surface and raw within

Delicious served tartare steak.

Raw Liver as Medicine

Back in 1934, researchers George Minot and William Murphy were awarded the Noble prize for discovering that eating raw liver cured anemia (iron deficiency).

Anecdotal Benefits of Raw Carnivore

Numerous raw carnivore adopters are chronicling their experiences and sharing the benefits they personally experience. 

For instance, writer Mariko Lockeridge has found that her poops are “kind of amazing,” and worth a high-five with her boyfriend every morning. 

She also concurs with the reports of hundreds of other raw carnivores that her energy levels and sex drive shot up and remain consistently high. She even reports having orgasms sooner and in quick pyrotechnic succession.

Raw Meat Carnivore Diet Tips

If you’re intrigued by the raw carnivore diet and want to give it a try, here are some tips to make it as safe and successful as possible. 

Freeze your meat for 7 days and Eat Immediately After Thawed. 

According to the USDA, freezing meat to 0 °F neutralizes any microbes, bacteria, yeasts, and molds present in food. 

However, once the meat is thawed, microbes can become active and multiply if the conditions are right.

Once thawed, eat your meat right away! Letting your meat sit at room temp allows contamination from airborne pathogens. 

Eat the Highest Quality Meat

If on a normal carnivore diet, it’s important to know where your meat comes from, on the raw carnivore diet, it’s essential. 

You want to be sure that the meat is from healthy animals and is processed and stored in ways that minimize contamination with harmful pathogens. 

The Bottom Line on The Raw Meat Carnivore Diet

Thousands of anecdotal reports suggest that the raw carnivore diet boosts energy and improves digestion. 

But eating raw meat does come with its potential risks. Raw meat is easily colonized by potentially harmful pathogens and parasites. Cooking eliminates these dangers, while “cooking” the meat in your stomach acid, doesn’t always do the trick. 

To minimize the risk from raw meat, freeze your meat for at least a week and consume it immediately after thawing. 

Or avoid any risks and simply enjoy a normal carnivore diet. Searing your steak on the outside where it’s been exposed to air can dramatically reduce the risk of contamination while leaving the inside raw and tender. 


Foods rich in natural vitamin D as fish, eggs, cheese, milk, butter, mushrooms, canned sardines

Top 6 Whole Foods High in Vitamin D

Though we can get most of our vitamin D from sunshine, an estimated 24% of Americans and 40% of Europeans are vitamin D deficient. And depending on the latitude and weather where you live, it may just be impossible to get enough vitamin D from the sun alone. This makes consuming foods high in vitamin D an important supplemental source.1

Vitamin D is a nutrient that is extremely important for the proper functioning of crucial physiological processes, including bone health, and immune protection against viruses, infection, cancers, and chronic inflammation. 1

In fact, most organs and body tissues have vitamin D receptors, suggesting many more important roles that scientists are still discovering.2

In this article, we’ll introduce you to the top 6 whole foods high in vitamin D. 


What is Vitamin D? 

Vitamin D3 structural molecular chemical formula isolated on whi

Vitamin D is both a nutrient we eat and a hormone that our bodies produce when exposed to ultraviolet-B rays from the sun. That’s why it’s often called the “sunshine vitamin.” 

It’s also an essential vitamin, meaning that our bodies need to get if from outside sources–in this case, the sun and through our diet. 

Roles of Vitamin D in Your Body

Vitamin D plays several other critical roles in the body, including:

  1. Bone health: Vitamin D helps the body absorb and retain calcium and phosphorus from food necessary for the development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth.6
  2. Immune function: Vitamin D helps to regulate the immune system and may play a role in reducing the risk of various autoimmune diseases.5
  3. Antiviral properties: Studies also show that vitamin D is effective in reducing the severity of viral infections, including COVID-19. 3
  4. Muscle function: Vitamin D promotes muscle cell growth and reduces inflammation, both of which support strong, healthy muscles.5
  5. Cardiovascular health: Vitamin D reduces blood pressure and improves blood sugar control.5
  6. Cancer prevention: vitamin D may reduce the risk of certain types of cancer, including colon, breast, and prostate cancer.6

How Much Vitamin D Do You Need? 

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D looks at the necessary amount to maintain only one key role in the body–the maintenance of healthy bones, and protection against rickets, a disease characterized by weakening bones. 

However, keep in mind that the RDA of vitamin D assumes very little sun exposure. What this tells us is that the optimal amount of vitamin D from food isn’t well established. And that it can change depending on the climate and the time of year. 

In any case, here are the official RDAs

  • Adults 19 years and older: 600 IU (15 mcg) 
  • Adults 70 years and older: 800 IU (20 mcg) 

Keep in mind that people with darker skin are more likely to have lower levels of vitamin D, and may need to get more vitamin D from food and supplements. 

This is because melanin–the pigment that makes skin dark–effectively shades the skin from UVB rays. Studies show that 20% of white adults and 75%-80% of black adults have low vitamin D levels in their blood.7 8

While an estimated 1 billion people worldwide are deficient in vitamin D. These deficiencies span all ethnicities and age groups.5

A word of warning: Sitting near a window while working or soaking up rays while driving won’t contribute to your vitamin D levels. Window glass blocks UVB ultraviolet light. 

Can I Get Enough Vitamin D from Food? 

The short answer is, yes, you can get plenty of vitamin D from foods high in vitamin D. 

Since vitamin D is found mostly in animal products like fatty fish, egg yolks, cheese, pasture-raised pork products, and beef liver, people on meat-based diets like carnivore and keto have an easy time getting enough vitamin D from food. 

For vegans and vegetarians, it’s more of a challenge. And across the board, many people rely on vitamin D supplements for their dietary RDA. 

Top 6 Foods High in Vitamin D

These fatty whole foods will boost your vitamin D intake along with various other essential macro and micronutrients. 

1. Pasture-Raised Lard

pasture raised lard

Pork, in general, is a decent source of vitamin D. While pasture-raised pork that gets to hang out in the sunshine can offer significantly higher concentrations. 

Surprisingly, pastured lard is one of the best vitamin D sources on the planet, offering 1,000 IU of Vitamin D per tablespoon.[6]  This makes lard nearly as high as cod liver oil.

Popular pork spareribs contain lower but still significant, 138 IU per 4-ounce serving. 

graph comparing vitamin D in pastured pork

2. Salmon

Chef's hand holding fresh piece of salmon

Salmon is loaded with healthy fats, including omega-3s. Stored amidst this fat is an abundance of vitamin D. 

  • 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of farmed salmon contains around 526 IU or 66% of the RDV. 4
  • 3.5-ounce (100-gram) wild salmon can contain up to 160% of the RDV 5

2. Atlantic Mackerel 

Board with tasty raw mackerel fish on wooden table

Atlantic mackerel is one of the most nutrient-dense foods out there, and most people it flys (er, swims) under the radar. 

  • 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of Atlantic mackerel provides 643 IU, or 91% of vitamin D 10

In addition to vitamin D, mackerel also offers a whopping 2990 mg of omega-3 per serving. 

3. Oysters

huîtres ouvertes sur un plat

Oysters are a bonafide superfood with high levels of various essential nutrients. 

In fact, the combination of zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B12, and selenium act as antioxidants in the body, combatting oxidative stress and reducing inflammation. [11] [12]

  • 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of oysters provides 320 IU, or 80% RDV of vitamin D. 

5. Egg yolks

Egg yolk in white bowl on wooden table, top view

Eggs are another superfood loaded with nutrients. And this makes sense when considering that eggs need to contain all the essential ingredients for building an entire creature. 

Keep in mind that the vitamin D in eggs is stored in the yolk–egg whites are a waste of nutrients. And if you haven’t heard, there is no longer an upper limit cholesterol. Our science has gotten better and we’ve finally admitted that dietary cholesterol is not associated with heart disease. 

  • One large conventional egg contains 37 IU of vitamin D, or 5% of the DV 18
  • Eggs from hens fed a diet vitamin D enriched diet may can provide 250% of your RDV in vitamin D per egg.21

While, as with pork, pasture-raised chicken eggs have up to 6 times more vitamin D than conventional eggs. 19, 20 

Two scrambled pastured eggs can provide over 200 IU of vitamin D. 6

6. Various Other Fish

Assorted canned fish in a tin over gray concrete background: sardine, smoked sardine, mackerel. Tinned fish as a convenient, fast, healthy food and source of omega-3 fatty acids, protein and vitamin D

Noticing a trend? Fatty fish provide excellent to good amounts of vitamin D. 

  • Canned light tuna packs up to 269 IU of vitamin D in a 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving, which is 34% of the DV (15
  • Fresh Atlantic herring provides 214 IU per 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving or 27% of the DV. 6
  • Halibut and mackerel provide 190 IU and 643 IU per 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving
  • Pickled herring is also a good source of vitamin D, providing 113 IU per 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving, or 14% of the DV
  • A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of canned sardines provides 193 IU or 24% of the DV 8

Beware that most fish is contaminated with pollution. And the bigger the fish, the greater likelihood of mercury contamination. 16

Foods High In Vitamin D: The bottom line

Our bodies can make most our the vitamin D we need from sunshine. However, depending on your lifestyle and the climate and latitude of where you live, getting sufficient vitamin D from sunshine isn’t always possible. 

This is where foods high in vitamin D become important dietary sources. 

The top sources of vitamin D include

  1. Pasture-raised lard (and pork products to a lesser extent)
  2. Salmon
  3. Atlantic mackerel
  4. Oysters
  5. Egg yolks–especially from pasture-raised hens
  6. Various fatty fish, including sardines, anchovies, and herring

In addition to vitamin D, these whole animal products provide a dense matrix of other essential nutrients. 

Though it is possible to get vitamin D from supplements, and from foods fortified with vitamin D (milk and organ juice), sticking with whole food sources is a smart way to increase your intake of all your macronutrient and micronutrient needs.

diagram comparing bodies of people who do and do not practice time restricted eating

Time Restricted Eating vs. Intermittent Fasting: What’s the Difference?

Time-restricted eating (TRE) and intermittent fasting are closely related strategies for cycling between periods of eating and not eating in order to improve numerous health factors. In simple terms, time-restricted eating is a specific type of intermittent fasting. 

There are a couple of key factors when differentiating time-restricted eating vs. intermittent fasting. These include

  • The time of day that you are restricting your eating
  • The length of time during which you are restricting your eating

In this article, we’ll look at how these factors distinguish time-restricted eating vs. intermittent fasting, along with their benefits and drawbacks. 


Why Time Restricted Eating and Intermittent Fasting?

The Standard American diet calls for eating at least three meals a day with snacks in between–most of it high in inflammatory ingredients, including

For many people, this means eating from the moment they wake up until the moment they fall asleep. 

Research shows that the constant consumption of high-carb modern foods wreaks havoc on our metabolic health. Modern eating patterns result in

  • chronically elevated levels of insulin, dysregulate other important hormones, and trigger the body to store calories as fat  
  • chronically elevated leptin levels lead to leptin resistance. When you’re leptin resistant, your brain loses the ability to “hear” the chemical messages that tell your body to stop eating. Instead, your body is stuck in “starvation mode.” You crave fattening, high-carb foods, move less to conserve energy and keep eating.
  • chronic exposure to plant toxins and antinutrients that damage your intestinal barrier allowing pathogens into the bloodstream. From there, they circulate to every tissue in the body, causing chronic inflammation

The impact of this metabolic damage is reflected in the fact that worldwide, 3 out of 5 people die from modern, chronic inflammatory diseases, including

  • Stroke
  • cardiovascular disease
  • respiratory diseases
  • heart disorders
  • Cancer
  • Obesity
  • type 2 diabetes,
  • various autoimmune disorders. 

Because these diseases are virtually nonexistent in traditional hunter-gatherer societies, they are often called “diseases of civilization.”

Numerous studies on time-restricted eating and intermittent fasting have shown benefits that directly address the roots of these diseases, including

  • Restores insulin sensitivity
  • Restores leptin sensitivity
  • Reduces inflammation 
  • stimulates autophagy–a process of cellular repair and renewal
  • stimulates stem cell production, helps heal intestinal permeability
  • improves insulin sensitivity
  • increases BDNF–miracle grow for your brain
  • supports weight loss
  • reduced risk of cancer
  • supports mindful eating

Which is Better, Time Restricted Eating vs. Intermittent Fasting?

When exploring time-restricted eating vs. intermittent fasting, let’s define their similarities and differences. 

What is Intermittent Fasting? 

Intermittent fasting simply means cycling between specific periods of eating and not eating. The fasting time can be of nearly any length, and take place at any time during a 24-48 hour cycle. 

For instance, the largest intermittent fasting studies on humans have looked at the month-long Muslim religious practice of fasting between sunrise and dusk during Ramadan. 

At the same time, intermittent fasting refers to popular methods like

What Sets Time Restricted Eating Apart from Intermittent Fasting? 

Ttime-restricted eating is a type of intermittent fasting. 

The key difference between time-restricted eating vs. intermittent fasting is that TRE specifically calls for eating within a limited number of hours during daylight. 

In other words, time-restricted is aimed at aligning your eating with your circadian rhythm. While intermittent fasting includes all intentional fasting patterns and doesn’t distinguish between fasting during day or night. 4

This approach to eating in alignment with natural light and dark cycles is also called chrononutrition.6

Why Does the Time of Day You Eat Matter? 

Circadian rhythm vector illustration. Labeled educational day cycle scheme. Daily human body inner regulation schedule. Natural sleep-wake biological process explanation and chronobiology infographic.

For millions of years before electricity and even fire, our physiology evolved in relation to natural light an dark cycles that governed our physical behavior, eating habits, and metabolism. 

The result of evolving with the natural light and dark cycle is our internal biological clock, known as our circadian rhythm. Our circadian rhythm regulates many important bodily functions, including[1]

  • sleep
  • metabolism
  • digestion
  • hormone secretion
  • immunity
  • cognition
  • neurobehavior 

Accordingly, studies looking at the effects of eating in alignment with our circadian rhythm by taking our meals during daylight and abstaining from food after the sun goes down reveal numerous benefits, including

  • weight loss [13]
  • better sleep[14]
  • relief from digestive symptoms like diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation. [16]
  • lower risk of intestinal dysbiosis (overgrowth of harmful bacteria)[17]
  • Better immune function[18]

A 2014 review of numerous studies on time-restricted eating found that TRE can result in similar benefits, including 4

  • decreased body weight
  • lower triglycerides
  • lower fasting glucose (blood sugar) levels
  • lower levels of “bad” low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 
  • higher levels of “good”  high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

Time Restricted Eating vs. Intermittent Fasting for Autophagy

dials showing autophagy engaged

One of the most important features of time-restricted eating is that it supports autophagy. 

Autophagy means “self-devouring.” It refers to the process where your body breaks down old and damaged cells and cell components and recycles them into new parts and cells. 

Studies show that time-restricted eating patterns that restrict caloric intake for at least 16-18 hours overnight stimulate autophagy.[1] [2] 6 [3]

Autophagy supports numerous important pysioligical functions, including

  • Slows aging and promotes longevity
  • Supports teh health of every organ in the body
  • supports cardiovascular health 5
  • reduces inflammation 6
  • protects against infection from bacteria and viruses 6
  • protects against neurodegenerative diseases 
  • protects against cancer 6

Time Restricted Eating vs Intermittent Fasting: The Bottom Line

Time-restricted eating vs. Intermittent fasting is a bit of a false comparison. This is because time-restricted eating is a version of intermittent fasting. 

The differentiating feature between intermittent fasting and time-restricted eating is that the TRE eating window takes place during daylight hours. 

Eating during daylight hours and fasting during dark aligns eating with your circadian rhythm. Doing so improves sleep, supports healthy blood lipid levels, reduces insulin resistance, controls blood sugar, reduces blood pressure, and stimulates autophagy.

Carnivore diet concept. Raw ingredients for zero carb diet - meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, beef bones for bone broth and words Carnivore Diet on gray stone background. Top view or flat lay.

How to Start the Carnivore Diet: A Step-by-Step Guide

Here you are, about to embark on the carnivore diet. Chances are you’re drawn to one or more of the many carnivore benefits. Are you here to resolve chronic autoimmune disorders, reduce inflammation, reverse infertility, shed excess body fat, get off diabetes and heart meds, and improve your mood and mental health? Well, you’ve come to the right place.

In this article, we’ll introduce you to the carnivore diet, and provide a step-by-step guide for getting started on carnivore today. 


What is the Carnivore Diet?

The carnivore diet is an ancestral way of eating.  This means that it simulates the diet that our ancestors evolved eating for over more than 2 million years.


That’s right, our human physiology is exquisitely designed to thrive on fatty meats. Before the dawn of agriculture 10,000 years ago, humans did not rely on plant foods. And none of the plant foods that exist today were part of our ancestral diet. 

Accordingly, the carnivore diet means eating only animal products and eliminating all plant foods.  

Nourishing animal fats, muscle protein, and meat-specific micronutrients are the foundation of our healthy cell structures and energy, hormonal regulation, cognitive vitality, and mental health. 

Plant products, on the other hand, expose our bodies to a long list of stressors like excess fiber, excess carbs, naturally occurring antinutrients and plant toxins, toxic molds, and industrial pesticides–all of which damage tissues and promote chronic inflammation–the roots of modern diseases.


Why Get Started on The Carnivore Diet? 

The science is clear, our modern diet and lifestyle are killing us! 

Modern so-called “foods,” like grains, sugars, and toxic seed “vegetable” oils, are the fuel for the chronic inflammation underlying the diseases of civilization

At the same time, poor sleep habits, lack of movement, chronic stress, and anxiety stoke the flames of inflammation lit by our disastrous eating habits. 

Across the globe, 3 out of 5 people die from these modern, chronic inflammatory diseases, including stroke, cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases, heart disorders, cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various autoimmune disorders.

The carnivore diet eliminates the toxic inflammatory substances at the root of these diseases and replaces them with nourishing, nutrient-dense whole-food animal products

Now let’s turn to the step-by-step process of getting started on the carnivore diet. 

Step 1: Commit to a Timeframe (min 30-60 Days)

how to start on a carnivore diet image with lions

Starting with at least 30 days is the doorway through which most people find long-term sustainable success on the carnivore diet. 

Dr. Shawn Baker and Dr. Ken Berry, both found their way from keto to carnivore by experimenting with a 30-day challenge. They fell in love with it and kept going.  Click here or on the image above to join Dr. Kiltz’s 30-day course. 

60-90 days are even more effective goals for people with more experience with self-discipline. 

For most people, the benefits will show up in days. But there may be some common side effects that crop up during the transition from your standard diet, making it important to stick to the diet long enough to allow your body the time it needs to adjust. 

Step 2: Join a Carnivore Diet Community

Online carnivore diet communities are great places to share ideas and success stories, stay accountable, and get inspired! 

That’s why Dr. Kiltz started his own “Mighty Tribe” that you can join for free, here. 

Other vibrant carnivore, ketovore, and fatavore communities have formed around Influential adopters like Mikhaila and Jordan Peterson, Dr. Shawn Baker,  Dr. Paul Saldino, and Amber O’Hearn. Check them out for more tips and inspo! 

Step 3: Remove Temptations: Clean out Your Cupboards! 

Illustration of a Teenage Fat Girl Closing and Hiding Pantry Full of Junk Food

Most of us don’t reach for processed, high-carb foods because we’re hungry. We eat it because we’re tempted!

And we don’t eat veggies because we want to, but because we’ve swallowed the false advertising that they’re good for us.

Veggies are easy to get rid of. But most people have a bunch of packaged, processed junk hiding in their freezers and cupboards.

The key to making healthy food decisions isn’t about exercising more willpower. It’s about reducing the number and difficulty of the food choices we have to make. 

Studies show that the more decisions we have to make, the poorer we are at making healthy choices.

So a key step on carnivore is to clear your house of every single non-carnivore food. 

Think of it this way. Would you rather wage a battle against chips and cookies 24/7? Or have no choice but to sizzle up that ridiculously delicious ribeye steak with melted blue cheese

List of Foods to Eliminate on a Carnivore Diet

guy giving finger to vegetables

Here’s a rundown of the foods to get rid of today

  • All fruits: Apples, bananas, berries, tomatoes, avocados–all these and all the rest 
  • All vegetables: the usual suspects like broccoli and spinach, along with vegetable broths
  • All sugars: added, natural, doesn’t matter. If it’s a sweetener, it’s off the table, yes even honey
  • All additives: Processed foods that have nitrates, nitrites, MSG, gums like guar, and oils like lecithin
  • All grains: wheat, rice, buckwheat, quinoa, etc. gone, goodbye, good riddance
  • All nuts, seeds, and legumes: almonds, pistachios, peanuts, flax seed, all beans, etc. Adios! 

Ever wonder what naturally occurring plant toxins can do to your body? See chart below: 

Step 4: Stock Up on Delicious Carnivore Foods

When starting the carnivore diet, you’ll be amazed out simple yet satisfying your shopping list becomes. A solid carnivore diet food list includes: 


From these foundational foods, you can avoid setbacks by premaking carnivore diet snacks. And you can boost variety and flavor with a few carnivore diet condiments

Pro Tip: Focus on Fat

It’s important to keep in mind that a carnivore diet is intrinsically a low-carb, high-fat ketogenic diet. When you cut carbs to nearly zero, you’ll need to get the majority of your calories from fat. This is because our bodies can only get around 35% of our calories from protein without experiencing symptoms of protein poisoning. 

Fortunately, getting enough fat on carnivore is easy. Simply focus on fatty meats and cook with an abundance of animal fats.

Begin with at least a 1:1 ratio of fat to protein in terms of weight. 

Fat has twice the calories as protein per gram, which means that a 1:1 ratio in weight is actually a  2:1 fat-to-protein ratio in terms of calories–damn near perfect for you body’s needs. 

Boosting your fat when transitioning to a carnivore is also key to avoiding carnivore diet side effects.

Fatty meat is also loaded with the essential micronutrients that your body needs. 


How to Start the Carnivore Diet: The Bottom Line

When considering how to start the carnivore diet, there are a few helpful tips that will make the transition smooth and sustainable. These steps include

  1. Committing to a time frame of at least 30 days. 60-90 are even better. It takes time for your body to transition and to get the hang of this new way of cooking and eating–give yourself a reasonable window. And if you slip up, don’t beat yourself up, just get back on the wagon. 
  2. Join the carnivore community. It’s incredibly motivating to hear and share your successes and challenges. Carnivore communities like Dr. Kiltz’s might tribe are links to the tips and tricks earned from thousands of personal experiences. Chances are, if you have a question, a carnivore community is where you’ll get the best, most personalized answers. 
  3. Remove temptations by cleaning out your fridge, freezer, and pantry. It’s much easier to resist non-carnivore foods when they’re not staring you in the face all day long. 
  4. Stock up on all the delicious carnivore foods. Focus on high-quality fatty meats and animal fats. 
  5. Repeat! It takes time to build a habit, get started today and keep going. Godspeed!
Cream Texture background close up, 3d render

Top 8 Carnivore Diet Condiments

One of the keys to the health benefits of the carnivore diet is that it eliminates inflammatory vegetable oils, sugars, and plant foods. Most popular condiments, like ketchup, mustard, mayo, bbq sauce, and dressings, contain nearly all of these non-carnivore ingredients. 

However, you may be surprised to learn that there are at least a few delicious and nourishing carnivore diet condiments. Let’s dig in. 


1 Salt

For most carnivore enthusiasts, a well-salted fatty cut of steak–looking at you, ribeye–is all you need to ignite your taste buds. 

But salt is the ultimate carnivore diet condiment for more reasons than flavor. Salt provides electrolytes and minerals, including sodium, potassium, and chloride.

This essential nutrient plays a vital role in various physiological processes, including

  • Maintain delicate fluid balances within and around cells
  • Maintain healthy blood pressure and proper pH
  • Essential for muscle contraction
  • Helps nerves send signals

On a low-carb high-fat diet, salt becomes even more important. Cutting carbs causes insulin levels to drop, causing the body to release glycogen stored in muscles. When this happens, the water that the glycogen was attached to leaves the body as urine, taking electrolytes with it.

Liberally salting your meat replaces these flushed nutrients, which goes a long way in avoiding various carnivore diet side effects. 

2 Butter 

Butter is not just allowed but highly encouraged on the carnivore diet. 

A few tablespoons of butter slathered over your favorite cut of meat or seafood is often the key to meeting your carnivore diet macro goals. 

Additionally, butter is loaded with nourishing fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin A, retinol, and vitamin D. 

Choose raw butter and give yourself the gift of a special anti-stiffness factor called the Wulzen-factor. It’s believed that this factor results from the synergistic effects of vitamin E, A, and vitamin K2

The fats, vitamins, and compounds in butter also support immune health, fat metabolism, a healthy microbiome, intestinal integrity, and protection against type 2 diabetes and obesity. 



If you’re dairy intolerant, you can still get the benefits of butter from Ghee. 

Ghee is a type of clarified butter. The diary solids have been separated out, leaving a toasty, nutty flavor.

In India, ghee is both a source of dietary fat and a medicine. Animal studies show that ghee can lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

3 Carnivore Diet Mayonnaise 

Mayonnaise in round dish isolated on white background, top view

Though store-bought mayo is a big NO, due to toxic seed oils, homemade carnivore mayo is a carnivore dream. 

You can make this recipe truly carnivore by eliminating lemon juice, ACV, and mustard. Or you can add the non-carnivore ingredients and use them as a treat-day condiment. 


  • 1 cup duck fat or bacon fat
  • 1 egg
  • 2 egg yolks
  • 1 tbsp fresh lemon juice
  • 1 tbsp apple cider vinegar
  • 1 tsp Dijon mustard
  • 1/4 tsp sea salt


  • Mix all ingredients except for the duck fat in a blender until smooth
  • With the blender on medium speed, VERY slowly add one drip at a time of the duck fat. It should take around 4 minutes
  • Blend for another 30 seconds until consistent–should look like mayo
  • Store in the fridge and enjoy!

4 Carnivore Cheese Sauce

Bowl with cheese sauce on white background

Carnivore diet cheese sauce is a velvety, salty, satiating condiment with major nutritional benefits. 

The vitamin K2 in cheese offers powerful cardioprotection. Soft cheeses like brie and camembert provide between 50 and 100 mcg of K2 per 100grams, and cheddar has 24 mcg.

For every 10 micrograms of k2 you consume daily, your risk of heart disease is reduced by 9%!

And cheese grass-fed dairy is a good source of the fatty acid called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

CLA has been shown to significantly inhibit the growth of cancer and tumors in the liver, breast, stomach, and prostate.

Here’s an easy carnivore diet cheese sauce recipe to make at home. 


  • 3 oz. soft cheese like camembert or creamy blue cheese
  • ⅓ cup heavy cream, 
  • 3 tablespoons of butter
  • 1 cup shredded cheddar cheese
  • ½ teaspoon Kosher salt


  1. Put the cream and butter into a saucepan and gently heat
  2. Add the grated cheddar cheese and soft creamy cheese
  3. Stir until melted and bring to a simmer. 
  4. Remove from heat once it begins to bubble
  5. Mix until smooth and creamy. 
  6. For a thicker sauce, cook for 3-5 more minutes while stirring
  7. If it gets too thick, add a splash of water or cream

5 Bacon Sprinkles

Bacon sprinkles are a great addition to the cheese sauce above, or simply add them to any carnivore meal for extra flavor and crunch. They’re especially good over deviled eggs made with carnivore mayo. 

To make bacon sprinkles, simply dice up some bacon and fry as usual. 

6 Fish Sauce

Fish sauce is packed with umami flavor. It’s earthy, and savory, with hints of noncarnivore food flavors like mushrooms, soy, and roasted tomatoes, rounded by a briny, caramel sweetness. 

A little fish sauce can go a long way in satiating your non-carnivore flavor cravings. 

And the best part is that all this flavor is produced by simply fermenting black anchovies for a couple of months to a few years in salt.

Not only is fish sauce packed with flavor, it’s also a great source of electrolytes, especially magnesium which can be a challenge to come by. 

7 Meat Reduction Sauce

A meat reduction sauce is a thick, decadent, and flavorful condiment made from meat stock. 

It’s easy to make by simply simmering meat drippings or premade beef or chicken stock over low heat until thick. Add water, salt, butter, and/or cream, and even bone marrow for desired texture and flavor. 

Spoon over your meats and enjoy! 

8 Sour Cream 

Sour cream is equal parts fun and yum as a carnivore diet condiment. 

Make your own homemade sour cream with heavy cream and cultured buttermilk. 

Simply mix the two ingredients together in a jar, tightly screw on a lid, and store in the dark at room temperature for 24 hours. 

Carnivore Diet Condiments: The Bottom Line

For a way of eating known for promoting simplicity over variety, the carnivore diet still has a place for a few nutritious condiments. 

In addition to delectable textures and flavor zingers, these carnivore diet condiments supply your carnivore meals with electrolytes, healthy fats, and fat-soluble vitamins.

Intermittent Fasting concept. 16:8 is a particular time restricted eating protocol in which individuals abstain from any caloric intake for 16 hours, and then eat freely for 8 hours

Time Restricted Eating (TRE): Benefits and How to Do it

Time-restricted eating (TRE) is a type of intermittent fasting. TRE aims to align your eating window with your body’s natural light and dark cycle, known as your circadian rhythm.  

Time-restricted eating is supported by studies showing that eating out of synch with our daily circadian rhythm interferes with the rhythmic processes of our organs, which can result in an increased risk of various chronic diseases.5

To optimally align the time you eat with your circadian rhythm, TRE calls for limiting eating to a number of daylight hours each day–usually between 10 and 6 hours. 

In this article, we’ll explore the benefits of TRE, how to do it, and what to eat and drink to get the greatest benefits. 


What’s the Difference Between Time Restricted Eating and Intermittent Fasting?

As a type of intermittent fasting, time-restricted eating calls for eating within a limited number of hours during daylight. 

Intermittent fasting is a term that includes shorter-term time-restricted eating techniques while also referring to more intensive fasting periods like OMAD “one meal a day’” and other IF fasting methods that last more than 24 hours

Put simply, time-restricted eating is explicitly about aligning your eating with your circadian rhythm, while intermittent fasting includes all intentional fasting patterns.3 4

chart of circadian rhythm biological processes

Consuming food in rhythm with your circadian rhythms on TRE is a dietary approach known as chrononutrition.6

Studies show that eating during daylight and abstaining from food after sundown results in benefits, including

  • Reduced body fat [13]
  • Improved sleep[14]
  • Improve digestive symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation. [16]
  • Reduced risk of intestinal dysbiosis (overgrowth of harmful bacteria)[17]
  • Improved immune cell recovery[18]

This means that if you finish your last meal at sundown, your next meal wouldn’t be until sunup the next day. 

How to Do Time-Restricted Eating? 

The most common approach to time-restricted eating is to eat all your food for the day within an 8-hour period of daylight. 

Eating between 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. or 12 to 8pm are common windows, depending on when the sun sets. The remaining 16 hours is a fasting period where you do not consume any calories from food or beverages. 

This fasting schedule is also referred to 16/8 fasting, the only difference is that TRE is explicit about keeping the 8-hour eating window within daylight hours. 

time restricted eating chart with 16-8-Intermittent-Fasting protocol

Benefits of Time Restricted Eating

Time-restricted eating has been shown to offer numerous powerful health benefits including

  • Stimulates autophagy–a process of cellular repair and renewal
  • Stimulated stem cell production, helps heal intestinal permeability
  • improves insulin sensitivity
  • reduces inflammation
  • increases BDNF–miracle grow for your brain
  • supports weight loss

Stimulates Autophagy (Cellular Repair and Renewal)

Studies show that time-restricted eating that eliminates caloric intake for at least 16-18 hours stimulates a process of cellular repair and renewal called autophagy.[1] [2] 6

However, not just any 16-18 hour period of abstaining from calories will trigger autophagy. It only turns on when fasting overnight. [3]

If you haven’t heard of autophagy, here’s a rundown of what it is and its critical benefits. 5 6

  • Autophagy is a natural process of “cellular spring cleaning” where damaged cells and cell components like organelles and misfolded proteins are recycled into healthy, fully functional cells
  • Autophagy Is critical to the health of nearly every organ
  • slows with aging and is therefore associated with various anti-aging benefits
  • promotes longevity
  • supports heart health 5
  • reduces inflammation 6
  • protects against infection from bacteria and viruses 6
  • protects against neurodegenerative diseases 
  • protects against cancer 6

Increased Stem Cell Production and Intestinal Healing

3d rendering of Human cell or Embryonic stem cell microscope background.

Stem cells are the body’s raw building materials. They’re the foundation of all other cellular structures. 

Stem cells are the foundations of all the cellular structures in your body. Think of them as the raw building blocks for tissues and organs. 

Aging in the body is directly related to a reduction in our ability to produce stem cells.6

When stem cell production slows down in our intestines it can be particularly detriminatl to our systemic health. 

Our intestines are the most important barrier of defense against plant toxins, antigens, pesticides, molds, and other toxic substances that we ingest. 

Over time, these substances destroy our mucosal lining and create gaps in our intestinal walls. These gaps allow the passage of all these toxins into our bloodstream by which they get deposited throughout our bodies. 

This condition, known as intestinal permeability, or “leaky gut” is a root cause of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases.  5

Leaky gut Syndrome concept. Comparison of healthy organ and inflamed tissue cells. Diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Toxins and viruses. Cartoon flat vector illustration isolated on white background

Studies show that time-restricted eating can stimulate stem cell formation, providing healing and protection in the gut. [9] 10

Improves Insulin Sensitivity

In an extensive 2022 review of various intermittent fasting approaches, including time-restricted eating, researchers determined that IF is an effective treatment for many diseases associated with insulin resistance. 5 6

A 2019 study on time-restricted eating found that TRE reduced 24-hour average blood sugar levels and reduced insulin resistance. 5

A 2018 study on obese, prediabetic men found that time-restricted eating improved Insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and markers of inflammation even without weight loss.6

Reducing and reversing insulin resistance offers various health benefits, including[7]: 

  • Improves symptoms of diabetes
  • Reduces the risk of heart disease
  • Resolves PCOS
  • Improves cognition
  • Protects against neurological diseases
  • Better skin complexion
  • Less water-weight 

Reduces Inflammation 

Chronic inflammation is the root cause of the world’s most lethal diseases. In fact, chronic inflammatory diseases kill 3 out of 5 people.. 2

These diseases include [5] [6] [7]

  • heart disease
  • Stroke
  • respiratory diseases
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes

The good news is that numerous studies have found that time-restricted eating is a powerful approach to reducing markers of inflammation, including oxidative stress and cortisol levels.5 7 8 5

Intermittent fasting approaches similar to TRE have been used as therapy for inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s, and MS. [14][15

Increases BDNF “Mirancle Grow for Your Brain”

Time-restricted eating has been shown to stimulate the production of a hormone called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF-1).5

BDFN plays a role in creating new brain cells compelled neuropsychiatrist John J. Ratey  to deem it “Miracle-Gro for the brain.” 

Researchers have associated BDNF with the formation of new neural pathways associated with better learning ability. While low BDNF levels are associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. [13]

Studies on animals have found that BDNF increases induced by fasting correspond with lower levels of depression, anxiety, and neurodegeneration.5

One human study found that fasting from dawn to sunset significantly increased BDFN levels.5 While other research shows that BDNF production naturally increases overnight.6 

Considering these findings, it is likely that practicing a time-restricted eating pattern that shifts the fasting period to nighttime would increase BDNF production over daytime fasting.

Weight Loss and Improved Body Composition

Numerous studies show that TRE is modestly effective for promoting weight loss.6 7 

Studies with both normal-weight and obese participants found that time-restricted eating patterns from 7–12 hours over 2–4 weeks found up to 5% weight loss.3 5 7 8

But as we touched on above, weight loss is a relatively superficial health factor. In fact, it is common to have stored body fat and be metabolically healthy. While at the same time, it is common to be normal weight and metabolically unhealthy. 

And time-restricted eating is a powerful tool for improving markers of metabolic health like reducing blood sugar, insulin resistance, and inflammation. 

That said, intermittent fasting has been shown to promote the oxidation of fatty acids, and support people in consuming fewer calories. Both of these are factors in weight loss.5 [2]  

Studies have shown that IF can increase your metabolic rate–the speed at which your body burns calories–by up to 14%. This rate increase occurs even when you’re body is at rest. 4 [5]

Research on numerous variations of intermittent fasting has found it safe and effective for weight loss, with the potential to promote a 9.9% reduction in body weight.2

Time-Restricted Eating Concerns? 

Time-restricted eating is one of the most gentle and easily adopted intermittent fasting methods. 

Because it simply realigns our eating patterns with our natural internal biological clock, it is safe for most people. 

What About Eating Disorders? 

Time-restricted eating is not recommended for people with eating disorders. TRE can be used to conceal anorexia and increase the severity of bulimia. 

What to Eat During Time Restricted Eating?

Many people who practice time-restricted eating find that the best results come from consuming low-carb, nutrient-dense ancestral foods centered around fresh meats, supplemented with organ meats,  seafood, and full-fat dairy. 

 Nutrient-dense whole foods that support TRE, including

Fatty whole foods provide saturated fats, cholesterol, and micronutrients nutrients that support the formation of healthy cell membranes and organelles. 

Approaches that allow some low-carb fruits and veggies include Mediterranean keto and pescatarian keto. While all-meat carnivore diet is a popular ancestrally-aligned approach. 

Combining low-carb high-fat eating with time-restricted eating mimics ancestral eating patterns that formed our physiology over millions of years of evolution. [21]

What to Drink When Time Restricted Eating? 

During periods of not eating, mineral water is the best option. 

However, black coffee and tea are generally accepted. A cup of black coffee only contains 2-3 calories. This will not disrupt the fasting state, and can actually enhance the process of autophagy.4 6

Time Restricted Eating: The Bottom Line

Time-restricted eating is an approach to intermittent fasting that aligns the eating window with daylight hours.

Aligning eating with daylight and restricting calories during the night resets your body’s internal biological clock, improving sleep, reducing insulin resistance, controlling blood sugar, and reducing blood pressure. 

At the same time, restricting calories for 16 hours stimulates the production of stem cells, autophagy (cellular renewal), and BDNF–a hormone that improves learning.

Animal protein food at stone table. Meat, chicken, fish, egg, beans, milk.

Milk on the Carnivore Diet? Drawbacks and Alternatives

The carnivore diet calls for consuming only animal products. And milk is an animal product. 

So, technically speaking, milk is allowed on the carnivore diet. But there’s a good reason why most carnivore dieters eliminate milk. 

In this article, we’ll explore the ins and outs of milk on the carnivore diet, and take a look at some delicious full-fat dairy alternatives. 


Milk is High in Carbs

glass of milk with sugar molecules

Why do most people eliminate milk on carnivore? 

Because it’s high in carbs–specifically a type of dairy sugar called lactose. 

A single 12 oz glass of whole milk contains nearly 18 grams of sugar. This is the equivalent of about half a coke. 

The carnivore diet is a high-fat, low-to-no-carb, moderate-protein diet. This means that it’s essentially a keto-carnivore diet. 

The ketogenic aspect of the carnivore diet is not something someone made up–it’s based on the fact that when you cut carbs you need to get all of your calories from fat and protein. 

And since our bodies can only get around 35% of our calories from protein before hitting a threshold for protein poisoning, you need to get the rest (65%) from fat–this triggers ketosis, the process of turning dietary and body fat into powerful energy molecules called ketones. 5

The fact that humans have “protein constraint” highlights the fact that humans evolved as hyper-carnivorous apex predators who focused hunting and eating fatty meat for nearly 2 million years.

Eliminating the regular consumption of high-carb foods like milk, supports the metabolic process of fat metabolism. 

Milk Allergies

Woman with stomach pain holding a glass of milk. Dairy Intolerant person. Lactose intolerance, health care concept.

Many people adopt the carnivore diet to overcome chronic digestive issues and food allergies that may be linked to or exasperated by dairy. 

For this reason, it’s common to begin the carnivore diet by consuming only meat, salt, and water. This is known as the Lion Diet, and it eliminates all dairy, including milk. 

After 30-90 days of this elimination protocol, people often begin experimenting with some full-fat dairy. 

Milk allergies are immune reactions. They can be caused by milk proteins, including casein and whey.  

Common symptoms of milk allergies include 

  • Hives and skin rashes
  • Stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Runny nose and congestion
  • Itchy or watery eyes
  • Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat
  • Difficulty breathing or wheezing
  • Anaphylaxis–a rare, but severe and potentially life-threatening reaction

A1 vs A2 Dairy on the Carnivore Diet

Two bottles and glass of milk different types.A1 and A2 milk var

The prevalence of allergies in milk are likely due to the presence of A1 casein proteins

10,000 years ago, before cows were domesticated, they produced only A2 beta-casein protein. 

Then around 8,000 years ago, a natural single-gene mutation in Norther European Holsteins, resulted in the production of A1 beta-casein protein.

The Holstein became the most common breed of dairy cow in North America, Europe, and Australia, the milk in these countries is primarily A1. 

In the body, A1 casein protein is broken down into beta-casomorphin-7. This peptide can have damaging effects on the pancreas and set off autoimmune responses throughout the body.

Some research shows that beta-casomorphin-7 may play a role in diseases including 

  • Type 1 diabetes, 
  • Cardiovascular diseases 
  • Autism (in people with immune deficiencies) 
  • Schizophrenia (in people with immune deficiencies) 
  • Sudden infant death syndrome 
  • Apnea 
  • Constipation 

However, its has been difficult to pin milk allergies on BCN-7.Studies on healthy adults who drink A1 cow’s milk have not found BCM-7 in the blood. While a few tests show BCM-7 present in infants.

It may be the case that milk allergies caused by BCM-7 coincide with intestinal permeability. BCM-7 may be one of numerous antigens along with plant toxins and antinutrients, pesticides, and toxic industrial substances in our foods.  Antigens are compounds that the body sees as a threat and reacts to with an inflammatory immune response. 

If you do consume milk on the carnivore diet, and/or dairy in general, choosing A2 milk may be a safer bet. 

A2 dairy comes from certified A2 dairy cows. All goats, sheep, and camel milk is naturally A2 dairy. 

What about Raw Milk on Carnivore? 

Kazakh sour-milk drink in a bucket

Raw milk has received a lot of hype, even from some carnivore diet thought leaders, but is this hype warranted? 

Raw milk does have a lot more going for it than pasteurized milk, but it’s still a high-carb food. 

The most carnivore-aligned approach to dairy is to get the benefits of raw dairy from higher-fat options like raw cream and creamy cheeses made with raw milk. 

Let’s take a look at some of the benefits of raw dairy

Raw Dairy Reduces Allergies

Studies on children show that consuming raw dairy results in a 50% lower likelihood of developing allergies, and a 41% lower likelihood of developing asthma compared to children who don’t consume raw dairy.

One large-scale 2011 study involving 8,000 children found that children who consumed raw dairy experienced “naturally immunizing” effects that reduced allergies and protected against illness.

More Nutrients

One of the main reasons why some carnivore dieters are turning to raw milk is that it contains relatively high levels of vitmain C, which can be hard to come by on the carnivore diet. 

Studies show that the vitamin C content (as ascorbic acid) in raw milk can range from 14.0 mg. to 22.5 mg per liter. 

After pasteurization in stainless steel equipment, vitamin C levels dropped to between  7.0 mg. and 19.1 mg per liter.

Contrary to popular knowledge,  you can get plenty of vitamin C from fresh meat. It’s also worth keeping in mind that when you cut carbs your body needs even less vitamin C than on a high-carb diet.

Beef Muscle Meet (1000 grams/2.2 lbs)Amount Vitamin C% sufficient to prevent scurvy
Grass-fed beef25.6 mcg256%
Grain-fed beef16 mcg160%

In addition to more vitamin C, raw milk also offers

  • 35% more vitamin A
  • 14% more vitamin E
  • 66% more iron
  • 70% more zinc
  • 38% more B vitamins
  • 21% more calcium
  • 100% more active enzymes
  • 100% more undamaged immunoglobulins
  • Non-degraded whey proteins

Alternatives to Milk on the Carnivore Diet

Cream pouring onto a wooden spoon isolated against white

If, like most people, you have no issues with dairy, and want to include it in your carnivore diet meal plan stick with raw heavy cream, butter and creamy, raw milk cheeses. 

Heavy cream and butter contain Omega-3 fatty acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) both of which are cardioprotective and offer profound anti-inflammatory effects.

Creamy ripened cheeses like blue cheese and stilton are loaded with between 2900 and 4700 specific bioactive peptides created as enzymes break down dairy proteins.

One of these peptides, called spermidine, has powerful anti-aging properties and has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. 

Blue cheese is one of the most spermidine-abundant foods, with 262 nmol per gram.

Milk on the Carnivore Diet: The Bottom Line

Milk is an animal product, which means that it’s technically permitted on the carnivore diet. 

However, unlike nearly all other animal products, milk is high in carbs. This makes it a poor fit for this low-carb ancestral eating plan. 

A1 dairy (most cows’ milk) also contains a dairy protein that can damage the pancreas and contribute to various disorders and autoimmune conditions. 

Carnivore-friendly alternatives to milk include whole cream, raw whole cream. Other good dairy options include butter and creamy cheeses.

Glass with sugar cubes and measuring tape. Weight control diet concept

Will Cutting Sugar Help With Weight Loss? Yes! Here’s How

The standard American diet is loaded with sugar, and studies show that consuming lots of sugar is a leading cause of obesity.4 In 2020, 41.9% of Americans were obese, up from 30% in 2000.5   In light of these alarming trends, let’s explore how sugar makes you gain weight, and how cutting sugar can be the key to weight loss. 


What is Sugar? 

First, let’s get clear on what we mean by sugar. 

Candy, pastries, and other sweets are all obvious high-sugar foods. But many other less obvious foods are responsible for our high-carb diets, including grains, low-fat dairy, fruits, and even veggies like broccoli all contain sugar. 

In short, any calorie that is not fat or protein comes from carbohydrates. And all carbs are sugars that get broken down into glucose, AKA blood sugar. 

In fact, the average American consumes around three pounds of sugar each week. This total includes 17 teaspoons or 71.14 grams of added sugars per day.2 Over the course of a year, this comes out to 57 lbs of added sugars per person.

And most of the sugar you consume is hidden in low-fat and plant-based products. 

All this sugar is doing more than adding excessive calories to your diet. Sugar makes you fat by disrupting hormones that regulate how your body burns and stores calories. This is why cutting sugar is a key to weight loss.

How Does Sugar Make Us Fat? 

Consuming a high-carb (high-sugar) diet causes the pancreas to release the hormone insulin. Higher insulin levels trigger the body to store calories as fat.  

Yet, insulin is only one hormonal factor in how sugar causes excess weight gain. The hormone called leptin is even more instrumental. 

Recent research has led researchers to consider leptin resistance as the main biological factor driving obesity.


It’s no surprise, then, that the foods implicated in obesity are the same foods that drive leptin resistance. High-sugar foods like refined grains, fruit, and added sugars spike leptin levels while interfering with leptin receptors in your hypothalamus.

Grains and legumes also contain high levels of an antinutrient called lectin. Studies show that lectins interfere with leptin regulation by binding to leptin receptors in the brain.

When you’re leptin resistant, your brain can’t “hear” the messages that leptin sends to stop eating. Instead, your brain is stuck in a starvation state and releases other hormones that tell your body to

  • keep eating
  • crave fattening, high-carb foods
  • Conserve energy by moving less

For our ancestors, leptin resistance supported survival by encouraging overeating of the rare seasonal fruits that ancient hunter gatherers came across and turning these calories into stored fat. 

The modern epidemic of leptin resistance is rooted in consuming high-sugar post-agrarian foods, that did not exist for the vast majority of human evolution. These foods include 

For most of human evolution dietary animal fat has been our primary fuel source, and our bodies are primed to store and then break down stored fat between successful hunts of fatty animals. We are not metabolically evolved to consume chronically high levels of carbs.


It’s no wonder then that by eliminating these high-sugar foods and replacing these carlories with nutrient-dense animal products, we can reverse leptin resistance and support weight loss.

Kiltz's Take

Leptin resistance leads to a self-reinforcing cycle of craving and consuming high-carb foods, storing excess fat, and lacking the motivation to move your body. 

This chain reaction can contribute to diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. 

Studies on Cutting Sugar and Weight Loss

Most studies looking at cutting sugar and weight loss come from research on low-carb, high-fat diets compared to calorie-restricting and low-fat diets. 

From a metabolic perspective, a high-fat low-carb diet is the only viable way to dramatically cut carbs/sugars. 

This is because our bodies can only get around 35% of our calories from protein before succumbing to protein poisoning.

The rest of our calories have to come from carbs or dietary fat. This “protein constraint” is another signpost pointing to how humans evolved on a diet of mostly fatty meat.

So what happens when modern humans eliminate sugar and eat an ancestrally aligned diet of mostly meat

Carnivore Approach to Cutting Sugar for Weight Loss

Though studies on the all-meat carnivore diet are still emerging, a 2021 report out of Harvard University found that  “Contrary to common expectations, adults consuming a carnivore diet experienced few adverse effects and instead reported health benefits and high satisfaction.”

Regarding weight loss, 93% of the 2,019 participants reported that they improved or resolved obesity and excess weight. 

You can see these dramatic results reflected in numerous carnivore diet before and after pics.

Keto Approach to Cutting Sugar for Weight Loss

High-quality randomized control trials comparing very low-carb ketogenic diets with low-fat, calorie-restricting diets have found that keto results in dramatically better health outcomes regarding weight loss and cardiovascular health.

graph comparing low sugar and low calorie diets for weight loss

A 6-month trial compared a very-low-carbohydrate diet (VLCD) to a calorie-restricted low-fat (CRLF) diet to promote weight loss in healthy, obese women.

The VLCD group lost twice as much weight as the CRLF group. Remarkably both groups ate the same number of calories (1650) per day. This outcome suggests that sugar/carbs are a key factor in weight gain and in inhibiting weight loss.

A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine compared 3 diets–the Mediterranean diet, a low-fat diet, and a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss. The study followed participants for 2-years–an extraordinarily long time for diet studies. 

Again, the low-carb diet group again lost the most weight, even though they were permitted to increase their intake from 20 grams per day at the start of the study to 120 grams at the end of the study.

A study with 79 obese adults found that cutting carbs/sugar intake to less than 30 grams per day resulted in an average loss of 8.8 pounds more than participants who restricted fat to less than 30% of daily calories over 6 months.

The results of these and numerous other studies clearly show that cutting sugar/carbs is an effective and, in most cases, superior approach to weight loss.

Metabolic Health is More Important than Being Skinny

It’s important to note that it is possible and surprisingly common to have higher than average body fat and be metabolically healthy

In fact, studies show that between 20-75% of people who meet the criteria for obesity have no negative health markers.

A more accurate way to access health than body fat are various markers of metabolic syndrome. These include high blood pressure, chronically elevated blood sugar, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Excess body fat is more accurately viewed as one symptom of metabolic disorder, not the cause. From this perspective, reversing metabolic syndrome should be the goal. Focusing on losing weight misses the mark. 

Not surprisingly, cutting carbs has been shown to resolve metabolic syndrome even for people who are clinically obese. 

One pilot study of the low-carb, high-fat Spanish Keto Mediterranean Diet (SKMD) looked at the effects of the diet for obese participants who had metabolic syndrome.

After 12 weeks, researchers found that 

  • The metabolic syndrome for all participants was resolved
  • Fasting blood sugar levels dropped 118 (pre-diabetic) to 91 (healthy)
  • Participants lost an average of 30 pounds
  • Waist circumference reduced by an average of 6 inches (16 centimeters)
  • Body mass index (BMI) dropped from 37 to 31.5: From class 2 obesity to the low end of class 1 
  • Increased HDL  “good” cholesterol from an average of 44 to 58
  • Decreased triglycerides from 224 to 109
  • All participants improved from “prehypertensive” to “normotensive”
  • Dramatically reduced markers of fatty liver disease, including liver enzymes and liver fat 

As noted, the participants were still on the low end of the obesity spectrum, yet their metabolic syndrome was resolved. 

Sugar and Weigh Loss: The Bottom Line

The standard American diet is loaded with sugar both from added sources and from high-carb foods, including grains, legumes, veggies, fruits and low-fat dairy. All carbohydrates, whether from a lollipop or from broccoli, get broken down into glucose (blood sugar)

High-carb (sugar) diets disrupt hormone signaling in ways that contribute to excess weight gain. Elevated insulin levels cause the body to store calories as fat. While leptin resistance inhibits the brain from receiving signals that tell the body it’s had enough food. When hunger doesn’t turn off we overeat high-sugar foods and have reduced motivation to move (use energy), and we store more fat. 

These hormonal adaptations evolved during a vast period of human evolution in which grains and cultivated vegetables didn’t exist, and wild fruits were rare. 

In the ancient world, the body learned to compel us to consume as much rare natural sugar as possible and store the calories as fat. In our modern sugar-saturated environment, these same adaptations that once helped us survive are killing us. 

Numerous studies show that cutting sugar and returning to an ancestrally aligned diet based on fatty, whole animal products is a powerful way to reverse metabolic disorders and lose weight.