separated egg white and yolk

Egg Whites vs Whole Eggs: Why Whole Eggs are the Healthier Choice

The egg whites vs. whole eggs debate has been raging for years. Much of the discourse has been driven by an outdated fear of dietary cholesterol found in egg yolks. Yet egg whites are still touted as a low-calorie, high-protein option. But in reality, choosing egg whites deprives you of the remarkable nutritional benefits only found in whole eggs. 

Whole eggs provide a complete package of essential nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, healthy fats, and high-quality protein, making them a superior choice for overall health. 

In this article, we will explore the reasons why whole eggs are a more nutritious and beneficial option compared to egg whites alone.


Cholesterol in Whole Eggs vs Egg White?

The debate over egg whites vs whole eggs began in the 1970s when nutritionists falsely feared that the cholesterol in egg yolks would raise blood cholesterol levels, thereby increasing the risk of heart disease.[1]

The yolk of two eggs contains about 185mg of cholesterol, whereas egg whites contain none.

However, recent scientific findings indicate that dietary cholesterol does impact blood cholesterol levels for most people as significantly as once thought. The effect of eggs on cholesterol is mainly seen in individuals with specific genetic conditions that cause increased cholesterol absorption in the intestines. [2]

A comprehensive meta-analysis conducted in 2020 concluded that consuming one whole egg per day is not linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the study suggested that egg consumption might even reduce heart disease risk in Asian populations.3

Studies comparing breakfasts that include eggs with those that do not have observed a modest increase in cholesterol levels in the groups consuming eggs. Despite this rise in cholesterol, the ratio of LDL (bad) cholesterol to HDL (good) cholesterol — an important indicator of heart disease risk — did not show any significant changes. This suggests that while cholesterol levels might increase, the overall risk profile for heart disease remains unaffected.19 20

These findings are consistent with various studies showing that healthy individuals can consume 1-2 eggs daily without adverse effects on cholesterol levels or heart disease risk. [3] [4] [5] [6]

In populations with metabolic disorders, research indicates that consuming whole eggs can raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels while having little to no impact on LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.[7] [8] 

Health Benefits of Whole Eggs vs Egg Whites

Let’s explore the science behind the health benefits promoted by whole eggs.

Eye Health 

Whole eggs are rich in the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin. These compounds play a critical role in eye health.2

A study in the Journal of Nutrition highlights that these compounds can reduce the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration, two leading causes of vision impairment and blindness.5

Brain Health 

Choline, found in the yolk of whole eggs, is essential for brain health. 

The choline in whole eggs has been found to 

  • promote the production of dopamine and serotonin.[18] 
  • improve memory and cognitive function.[19] 
  • support fetal brain development when consumed during pregnancy. [20]

Muscle Building and Weight Management 

Research has found that consuming whole eggs is superior to egg whites in promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscle building.5

Additionally, whole eggs contribute to greater satiety, which can aid in weight management by reducing overall calorie intake.4

Thyroid Health and Immune Function 

Whole eggs are a good source of selenium, providing 50% of your RDV in just 2 whole eggs. 

The selenium in whole eggs supports numerous bodily functions, including [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26]:

  • thyroid health
  • immune function
  • provides antioxidant protection
  • supports lung health. 

Egg White vs Whole Egg Nutrition

Whole eggs provide all the nutrients that an entire animal needs to form. The majority of these highly beneficial nutrients are stored in the yolk. 

NutrientWhole Eggs (Per 50 grams)%RDVEgg Whites (Per 50 grams)%RDV
Saturated Fat1.9g0g
Vitamin A87.5mcg10%00%
Thiamin (B1)0.04mg3%00%
Riboflavin (B2)0.13mg10%0.21mg16%
Vitamin B5 (PA)0.75mg15%0.09mg2%
Vitamin B60.08mg4%00%
Folate (B9)37.5mcg9%1.9mcg0%
Vitamin B120.475mcg20%0.045mg2%
Lutein & Zeaxanthin265mcg0
Vitamin E0.6mg4%0
Vitamin D1.35mcg (Conventional) / 37.5mcg (Enriched feed)6.75%-187.5%00%
Iron, Fe0.68mg4%0.045mg0%
Phosphorus, P97.5mg8%7.5mg0%
Zinc, Zn0.57mg5%0.015mg0%
Copper, Cu0.0225mg2%0.015mg1%
Selenium, Se14mcg25%9.7mcg18%
Potassium, K27.5mg0.5%79mg2%


Whole eggs are a nutrient-dense food that offers a wide range of health benefits. From supporting eye health to enhancing brain function and aiding in muscle building, whole eggs are a valuable addition to any diet. By understanding the scientific evidence, we can appreciate the comprehensive nutritional profile of whole eggs and their role in promoting overall health.

Raw dry aged wagyu entrecote beef steak roast as closeup on a rustic wooden cutting board

Carnivore Diet Ketosis: What You Need to Know

One of the key mechanisms through which the carnivore diet produces its effects is ketosis. In this metabolic state, the body produces the majority of its energy needs from the breakdown of dietary and body fat. This process produces powerful energy molecules called ketones. The transition to ketosis is a hallmark of all “ketogenic” low-carbohydrate diets. But the carnivore diet takes carb restriction to another level, by virtually eliminating all carbohydrates.

Understanding how the carnivore diet induces ketosis, its potential health benefits and the limits on protein intake can be valuable for those considering this dietary approach.


What is the Carnivore Diet

The carnivore diet is based on a large body of research that suggests that humans evolved as hyper-carnivorous apex predators feasting on giant, extremely fatty animals known as megafauna for nearly two million years.5 

It wasn’t until the dawn of the agricultural revolution around 10,000 years ago that we began to settle down and cultivate grain crops. This change was in large part caused by the effectiveness of human hunting, which led to the extinction of the megafauna humans had relied on.[1] [2]

10,000 years is just a flash in the pan of our dietary evolution. Our bodies are designed over millions of years to thrive on fatty meats. Our species-specific preference for fatty meat is manifest in the fact that we are metabolically constrained to get a maximum of 35-50% of our calories from protein. More than that and we get “protein poisoning.” 4

Since the carnivore diet is essentially zero-carb, the remaining 65% of our calories after protein have to come from animal fats! 

What is Ketosis?

Ketosis is an energy production process where the body gets the majority of its energy from breaking down fatty acids from the foods we eat, and/or from fat stored on our bodies.1

The process of ketosis is as follows: 

  1. Carbohydrate restriction: Reducing carbs to less than 20% of your caloric intake depletes glucose stored in your muscles. This occurs on all low-carb diets such as Atkins, paleo-keto, standard keto, meat and greens, and of course, the carnivore diet.
  2. Decreased levels of insulin: When carb intake drops, so do insulin levels. Less insulin triggers the body to metabolize fatty acids and transport them to the liver. 
  3. Ketone production: In the liver, fatty acids are broken down through a process called beta-oxidation into a compound called acetyl-CoA. The liver then converts acetyl-CoA into ketone bodies: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone.

These ketone bodies provide significantly more energy than glucose molecules. 

Glucose (Carb) Energy 3-Hydroxybutyrate Ketone (Fat) 
8.7 kg of ATP per 100g10.5 kg ATP per 100g

Ketosis compounds

What percent of the body’s energy comes from ketones on the carnivore diet? 

Since the carnivore diet is essentially zero carb, a significant portion of the body’s energy comes from ketones, especially for the brain. 

However, the exact percentage will vary depending on how adapted a person is to a low-carb high-fat diet, their level of physical activity, and baseline metabolic rate. 

Up to 75% of the brain’s energy needs can be met by ketones from ketosis. The remaining 25% will come from glucose produced in the body by gluconeogenesis– the creation of glucose from protein and glycerol (from fats).2 3

For the rest of the body’s energy needs, the exact percentage can vary. A reasonable estimate is from 50-70% of energy from ketones. The remainder would come from fatty acids and glucose derived from gluconeogenesis.6

Are People on the Carnivore Diet Always in Ketosis? 

Most people who have adapted to the carnivore diet will be in mild ketosis. For many people, ketosis– tested as elevated ketone levels in the urine– is not detectable. 

The only clinical study assessing how the carnivore diet impacted ketone levels in the blood was published in 1930. It was done at New York’s Bellvue Hospital and followed three men. Two of the men ate only meat for a year, and the third man did carnivore for only ten days. 

One of the study’s participants, the Arctic explorer Vilhjalmur Stefansson, proposed the idea. Steffanson first discovered the possibility and benefits of the carnivore diet while living with the Inuit. 

Vilhjalmur Stefansson dragging a seal

Vilhjalmur Stefansson dragging a seal back to camp. This picture was the cover photo for Stefansson’s book, “The Friendly Arctic,” published in 1921.

Ultimately, the researchers found that ketone bodies in the urine decreased after the commencement of the diet, even as the fat-to-glucose/protein ratios remained consistent.1 

Here’s a summary of the main findings of the study in the words of the researchers: 

Diet and Duration: Two men lived on an exclusive meat diet for one year, and a third man followed the same diet for 10 days. The proportion of lean to fat meat consumed was based on the individuals’ instinctive choices.

Nutrient Intake: “The protein content of their diet ranged from 100 to 140 grams, fat from 200 to 300 grams, and carbohydrates (derived entirely from the meat) from 7 to 12 grams. Their total caloric intake varied from 2000 to 3100 calories.”

Physical and Mental Health: At the end of the year, the subjects were mentally alert, physically active, and exhibited no specific physical changes in any body system.

Weight Changes: During the first week, all three men lost weight due to a shift in the body’s water content as it adjusted to the low carbohydrate diet. After this period, their weights remained stable.

Blood Pressure: Throughout the prolonged test, one man’s blood pressure remained constant, while the systolic pressure of the other decreased by 20 mm, with diastolic pressure remaining uniform.

Bowel Function: The control of bowel movements was not disrupted while the subjects were on the prescribed meat diet. However, one subject developed diarrhea when the proportion of protein calories in the diet exceeded 40 percent.

Vitamin Status: No vitamin deficiencies were observed.

Urine Acidity: The total acidity of the urine increased to 2 or 3 times that of the acidity on mixed diets, and acetone was present throughout the periods of exclusive meat consumption.

Kidney Function: Urine examinations, assessments of the nitrogenous constituents of the blood, and kidney function tests showed no evidence of kidney damage.

Metabolism: While on the meat diet, the men metabolized foodstuffs with fat-to-protein ratios between 1.9 and 3.0, and excreted between 0.4 to 7.2 grams of acetone bodies per day.

Overall Health: In these trained subjects, clinical observations and laboratory studies provided no evidence that any adverse effects had resulted from the prolonged use of the exclusive meat diet.

Note that the only instance when a participant experienced discomfort including diarrhea was when as an experiment they ate only lean protein. This ws quickly remedied by a single high-fat meal. 

How Much Fat do I Need to Eat to Stay in Ketosis on the Carnivore Diet?

The exact amount of fat needed to maintain ketosis can vary based on individual factors such as metabolism, activity level, and specific health goals. 

Here are some general guidelines to make sure you’re getting enough fat. 

Macronutrient Ratios

On a typical ketogenic diet, the macronutrient ratio is often around 70-80% fat, 20-25% protein, and 5-10% carbohydrates. 

On the carnivore diet the focus is on balancing fats and proteins since there are no carbs to account for. A common approach is to aim for a 1:1 or 3:1 ratio of fat to protein by weight.

Calories from Fat

Fat provides 9 calories per gram, while protein provides 4 calories per gram. If you’re aiming for around 70-80% of your calories from fat, you can calculate your daily fat intake based on your total caloric needs.

Here’s an example:

If your daily caloric need is 2000 calories:

  • 75% of 2000 calories from fat = 1500 calories from fat
  • 1500 calories ÷ 9 calories per gram = approximately 167 grams of fat per day

Benefits of Ketosis on the Carnivore Diet

Here’s a rundown of some of the benefits of ketosis that can be achieved on the carnivore diet. 

Body Fat

A very-low-carbohydrate diet has been found to significantly reduce bodyfat while increasing lean body mass in normal-weight men. 1 Researchers believe that the ketone β-hydroxybutyrate plays a role in preventing catabolism of lean tissue along with other anabolic hormones stimulated by carb restriction, including human growth hormone. 

Systemic reviews have found that ketogenic diets can help patients lose about 2 kg more than low-fat calorie-restricing diets do at 1 year. 2

Neurological Conditions

Ketones serve as an optimal energy source for the brain. Studies suggest that ketone bodies can enhance cognitive and motor functions and reduce damage associated with Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, seizure disorders, and brain trauma. 1

Mental Health

A 2022 controlled feeding study of 31 psychiatric inpatients who were not being helped by standard treatments found remarkable results, including. [12]

  • The 28 patients who made it past day 6, continued on a keto diet for between 14 and 248 days.
  • All patients experienced significant improvements in depression and psychosis symptoms and multiple markers of metabolic health.
  • 100% of patients had symptoms improve.
  • 96% of patients reduced their body weight.
  • 64% of patients reduced or discontinued medication.
  • 43% achieved clinical remission of their mental health conditions.

Cardiovascular Health

Ketones are vital for heart energy metabolism. Research indicates that increasing ketone levels may offer benefits for individuals with cardiovascular disease or those at risk.4 5 6 7

Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders

Ketone bodies produced by the liver may help reduce inflammation, presenting a promising treatment approach for autoimmune disorders. 72 3

Carnivore Diet Ketosis: The Bottom Line 

The carnivore diet induces ketosis by significantly restricting carbohydrate intake and increasing fat intake. This leads the body to produce energy primarily from the breakdown of fats into ketones.  

Research suggests that ketosis may offer numerous therapeutic benefits for various health conditions. 

When adapted to the carnivore diet, most people enter a sustainable state of light/mild ketosis. 

a cheeseboard, eggs, butter and a portion of raw beef on a white background

Top 7 Foods that Heal Leaky Gut

The recent spotlight on gut health has illuminated the critical role it plays in our overall well-being. Leaky gut syndrome, a condition where the lining of the intestines becomes degraded and permeable, allowing harmful substances to leak into the bloodstream, has garnered significant attention. While dietary approaches to heal the gut often erroneously emphasize plant-based foods, emerging research suggests that certain animal-based foods hold the greatest therapeutic potential to heal leaky gut. 

In this article, we’ll explore the science behind how specific animal-based food help heal and seal the gut lining, offering hope for those seeking relief from this increasingly prevalent condition. 


What is Leaky Gut?

leaky gut. cells on gut lining held tightly together. in intestine with celiac disease and gluten sensitivity these tight junctions come apart. autoimmune disorder. Vector diagram for educational, medical, biological and science use

Leaky gut is the unofficial name for a condition known as intestinal permeability.

Our intestines have over 4,000 square feet of surface area, safeguarded by a mucosal membrane. This membrane acts as a gatekeeper, regulating the passage of nutrients and substances into our bloodstream. When in optimal condition, our intestinal lining selectively permits only beneficial compounds to be absorbed, ensuring our overall health and well-being.1 2 

But when we consume foods and substances that damage and degrade this lining, gaps form between the cells that make up the mucosal membrane. Plant toxins, antinutrients, bacteria, sugars, pesticides, and undigested food particles can then cross the intestinal barrier and enter your bloodstream. 3

Upon entering the bloodstream, these antigens get deposited in organs and tissues throughout the body. In response, the body initiates inflammation as a protective mechanism. Over time, inflammation can become chronic, leading to various autoimmune diseases and disorders that affect physical, mental, and cognitive health. 

The good news is that for most people leaky gut can be relieved and even reversed by eliminating the foods that contribute to leaky gut and replacing them with nutrient-dense animal foods that directly support intestinal health. 

Now let’s take a closer look a the foods that heal leaky gut. 

1. Bone Broth

Bone Broth Bouillon in Metal Pan. Organic Food.

Bone broth is loaded with collagen and glutamine. 

Studies have found that collagen peptides improve intestinal function by specifically strengthening the junctions between epithelial cells lining the intestines and reducing inflammation–two factors directly associated with leaky gut.4 5

The amino acid glutamine has been found to provide energy to immune cells and intestinal cells producing anti-inflammatory, gut-healing effects. [36] [37]Studies show that glutamine can protect against intestinal permeability. [38] [39]

2. Blue Cheese

Slice of Roquefort cheese on white background

Studies have found that the beneficial bacteria in blue cheese can help modulate gut inflammation, improve stool consistency, and enhance overall gut function.

Blue cheese is also a fantastic source of a bioactive peptide (a building block of protein) called spermidine. Spermidine has been found to directly improve gut barrier integrity in various ways, including 1 2 3

  • Reducing intestinal inflammation by promoting anti-inflammatory molecules that preserve the integrity of the gut lining.
  • Altering the gut microbiota by increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria and reducing the abundance of harmful bacteria.
  • Anti-oxidative effects that protect gut lining from damage caused by chronic inflammation. 

3. Butter

is butter good for you

Butter is high in beneficial fatty acids that can both protect the gut lining from antigens and help heal damaged cells. 

One of these fatty acids is lauric acid, which provides antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Research on lauric acid has found that it can reduce harmful intestinal bacteria, protect against microbial infection, and support a healthy microbiome. [29] 

Butyrate (butyric acid) is a short-chain fatty acid that naturally occurs in butter. Butyric acid has been found to provide antioxidant properties directly to the mucosal lining of the gut. 

An animal study found that in mice, the addition of dietary butyrate improved symptoms of ulcerative colitis after only 14 days. [19]

Studies on humans have found that butyrate improves digestive conditions associated with leaky gut, including, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and Crohn’s disease. [23] [24] [22]

In one study, women who ate four or more servings of high-fat dairy foods like butter lowered their risk of colon cancer by 34%. [12]

diagram showing nutrients in butter

4. Organ Meats


Just a few weeks on a vitamin A-deficient diet can produce changes in gut bacteria that damage the intestinal barrier. This may be why vitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammatory bowel disease. [26]

Organ meats are among the most nutrient-dense foods on earth. A single serving 3.5 oz serving of beef liver provides 4,968 µg of vitamin A, for 552% of your RDV, and 2471% of your RDV of B12. 

Vitamin A directly regulates immune responses in the intestinal epithelium, which is crucial to the maintenance and proper function of the gut lining. 5 While, B12 plays a key role in over twelve enzymes that support healthy gut bacteria.2

5. Pasture Raised Pork

keto meats pork belly

Vitamin D deficiency can also compromise the barrier, which may be why it’s associated with inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal permeability. [44]

Pasture-raised pork that gets to wallow about in the sunshine can offer significant concentrations of vitamin D. 

Pastured lard, in particular, is one of the most potent dietary sources of vitamin D, providing 1,000 IU of Vitamin D per tablespoon.[6]  This makes lard nearly as high as cod liver oil.

Popular pork spareribs contain lower but still significant, 138 IU per 4-ounce serving. 

Pork is also high in complete fresh meat protein, which has been found to support the growth of beneficial Lactobacillus gut bacteria.3

6. Lamb

Lamb rack with limoncello glaze served on a plate

Lamb meat provides more of the highly benefic conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) than any other food. [27]    

The (CLA) in lamb meat is produced naturally when grass is fermented in the animal’s digestive system. 

Research shows that conjugated linoleic acid has a strong influence on the connection between the gut and the brain. It works by acting on certain types of cells in the intestine called myeloid cells. These cells then regulate how the immune system responds to encephalitogenic T-cells, which are involved in inflammatory processes in the brain.

Lamb is also a fantastic source of anti-inflammatory monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B12, and glutathione, considered the “master antioxidant.”[28] [29] [30] All of these compounds protect the intestinal lining and can contribute to healing leaky gut. 

7. Eggs

Are Eggs Good for You?

Consuming eggs has been found to improve the function of blood vessels and gut microbiota without causing inflammation in the gut. 1

A single conventional whole egg provides various other gut healing nutrients, including 10% of the RDV of vitamin A, 15% of the RDV of vitamin D, and 15% RDV of vitamin E.

To boost your vitamin D levels, you can opt for eggs from hens fed a vitamin D-enriched diet. These eggs can provide 250% of your RDV in vitamin D per egg. [19]

Foods that Heal Leaky Gut: The Bottom Line 

Intestinal permeability is a condition that is receiving more attention as a potential root cause of various diseases and disoreders associated with chronic inflammation. 

Numerous, so-called “healthy plant-based foods” like nuts, legumes, and dark leafy greens, actually contain compounds that can harm the gut lining including lectins, oxalates, abrasive fibers, and bacteria. While whole animal products have been overlooked as abundant sources of nutrients that protect the gut lining without providing the toxic stressors found in most plant products. 

If you’re serious about healing and preventing leaky gut, these whole animal products provide foundational support.

bottle of vegetable oil and a toxic symbol

Is Linoleic Acid Bad for You?

Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid that has become a focal point in discussions about the negative impacts that modern diets have on our health. While it is an essential fatty acid, the modern Western diet provides excessive amounts. This excess is due to the widespread use of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil, all of which are high in linoleic acid. But is linoleic acid itself bad for you? 

Studies show that this imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can lead to chronic inflammation, the root cause of various health issues, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and even cancer. 

In this article, we’ll explore the mechanisms through which linoleic acid is bad for the body with the intention of helping you make informed dietary choices to support your health goals and prevent disease.



What’s The Problem with Linoleic Acid?

Before the 20th century, linoleic acid constituted only 2% of total daily calories. The optimal range for our bodies’ needs is approximately 1% to 2%. When consuming a modern Western diet, linoleic acid makes up 25% of the average person’s total calorie intake. 5

Linoleic acid is the parent molecule for a pro-inflammatory molecule called Arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is the precursor for a biochemical pathway that creates over twenty pro-inflammatory eicosanoids.

Consuming such excessive levels of linoleic acid has been found to reduce the metabolic rate (the number of calories you burn just to stay alive) while increasing oxidative damage to body tissues, leading to chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, premature aging, and increasing the rate of all-cause mortality.

graphs showing linoleic acid as percentage of calories

These graphs highlight the dramatic rise in LA consumption over time, both in absolute terms (grams per day) and relative to total caloric intake. The increase in linoleic acid consumption tracks with the increased use of industrial seed “vegetable ” oils. 

graph showing american consumption of vegetable oils

Is Linoleic Acid Bad for You? What the Research Says

Here’s a rundown of relevant modern research that explores the various ways that linoleic acid can be harmful.


In a study on mice, LA has been shown to cause obesity, insulin resistance, and reduced physical activity more significantly than saturated fats. 

In overweight or obese individuals, meals high in LA may also increase levels of ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite, and resistin, which impairs insulin signaling.

Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome entails a cluster of conditions, including abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, elevated glucose and triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol. It is also associated with higher markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, which can increase the risk of heart disease.

In children, LA and its oxidized metabolites (OXLAM) have been linked to intrahepatic fat accumulation, liver injury, and impaired insulin secretion.

OXLAM produced from LA has been found to damage various physiological structures, including DNA, mitochondria, cell membranes, proteins, and stem cells.

Heart Disease

Modern research suggests that the key factor driving heart disease appears to be the oxidation of PUFAs, specifically LA, in cell membranes.  This would explain findings from various large-scale studies looking at the effects of PUFA consumption on heart health. 

For example, The Sydney Diet Heart Study, was conducted essentially to confirm the belief that reducing saturated fatty acids and consuming more PUFAs, including LA, reduced heart disease. However, the results showed that participants in the high PUFA group experienced a significantly higher risk of both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality compared to those in the control group.

Another large-scale study, known as the Cardiovascular Health Study, found that higher levels of LA in the blood were associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality as well as cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality.  

Two other large cohort studies, the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, found that greater consumption of LA was associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease mortality.

Cognitive Impairment

Studies show that the oxidized metabolites from linoleic acid are linked to impaired memory and an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. In particular linoleic acid-rich Canola oil has been linked to Alzheimer’s.

In a 2020 study using mice, researchers discovered that a high soybean oil diet not only resulted in obesity and diabetes but also had potential impacts on neurological conditions, including autism, Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety, and depression.

A 2023 study found that a higher intake of linoleic acid from vegetable oils was associated with higher rates of cognitive impairment among middle-aged Italians. Whereas intake of saturated fatty acids (from animal sources) was associated with lower rates of cognitive impairment.


Research from 2022 found polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid are degraded through oxidation in the body into a compound called reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). This compound increases the risk of cancer by impairing mitochondrial function and increasing systemic oxidative stress.

Animal studies have shown that higher consumption of seed oils is linked to a greater incidence of cancer. These animals typically develop cancer when linoleic acid (LA) makes up 4% to 10% of their energy intake.

PUFAs can also act as a cancer “sensitizer,” sparking cancer development when combined with the widespread synthetic chemicals in our environment, which are usually pretty harmless on their own. One study even found that dietary PUFAs can turn tiny doses of heterocyclic amines from nearly harmless to highly carcinogenic.

Increased Mortality

In a study looking at patients with coronavirus, researchers found that oxidized metabolites from vegetable oils depleted glutathione levels in the liver, thereby impeding antioxidant defenses, reducing immune function, and increasing mortality.

What Oils are Highest in Linoleic Acid? 

The graph below lists the commonly used oils with the highest percentage of LA. Note that soybean oil is the main ingredient in most commercial mayonnaise and most bottled salad dressings. 

graph showing vegetable oils high in linoleic acid

Is Linoleic Acid Bad for You: The Bottom Line 

The chronically high intake of linoleic acid in the modern Western diet has been linked to increased inflammation, obesity, and metabolic disorders. Animal studies have shown that diets rich in linoleic acid can lead to greater weight gain and insulin resistance compared to saturated fats. 

Additionally, linoleic acid consumption can elevate levels of inflammatory markers and oxidized metabolites, contributing to chronic diseases. 

Reducing processed seed oils and incorporating more whole, nutrient-dense fatty animal products can be a vital step towards better health and well-being.

fatty ribeye

Not Getting Enough Fat on the Carnivore Diet: Side Effects and Remedies

The carnivore diet is, by default a high-fat, low-carb way of eating–meat is essentially a zero-carb food. Yet because we’ve been trained by nutritional misinformation to fear fat, many people suffer the pitfall of eating too little fat on the carnivore diet. When you’re not getting enough fat on carnivore, a slew of issues can arise, including the uncomfortable and potentially dangerous symptoms of protein poisoning. 

In this artilce, we’ll take a closer look at what happens when you’re not getting enough fat on carnivore, and some easy tips to help you boost your fat intake. 


Not Getting Enough on Carnivore: Fast Facts

The human body is ruled by metabolic constraints when it comes to the percentage of calories we can get from protein. 

When you cut carbs to less than 10% of your diet–as is the case for nearly every carnivore dieter– you need to get at least  70-80% of your calories from fat. only Only 10-30% of caloreis come from protein. 

Not getting enough fat on the carnivore diet can result in various issues, including: 

  • Persistent hunger
  • Intense cravings for carbohydrates
  • Risk of protein poisoning, also known as rabbit starvation
  • Digestive disturbances like diarrhea or constipation
  • Potential deficiencies in essential micronutrients

Humans are Designed to Eat Mostly Fat 

To better understand the repercussions of inadequate fat consumption on the carnivore diet, it’s vital to grasp the central role fat has played in human evolution and physiology.

For nearly two million years, preceding the advent of agriculture, humans thrived primarily on high-fat, low-carb diets. Our ancestors’ ability to flourish on fatty meats fueled the development of our larger brains, distinguishing us from our primate relatives.

Researchers like Miki Ben-Dor and Amber O’Hearn emphasize that our evolutionary history is deeply intertwined with a carnivorous diet rich in fatty animal products. This genetic predisposition for fat consumption is reflected in our bodies’ physiological makeup and metabolic preferences. 

  • We store far more fat on our bodies (to be used as fuel) than any of our primate relatives
  • We enter ketosis in non-starvation states
  • Fatty meat provides the near-perfect balance of macro and micronutrients for our specific physiological needs. We evolved and optimized as meat eaters. 
  • Our digestive tract is much shorter than our primate ancestors. Our short, highly acidic digestive tract is designed to digest meat. The long, less acidic, digestive tract of primates is designed to ferment plant fibers into fatty acids. In both cases fat becomes the main macro nutrient. The difference is that humans evolved to get it from other animals, not to create it within ourselves.
  • Our brains are massive and demand 20% of our caloric energy. We were able to evolve our brains once we discovered the ready-made fat loaded with brain-specific fat-soluble vitamins from other animals. The brains of our primate ancestors use only around 8% of caloric energy because so much energy goes into fermenting fiber into fat.  [1]


Source:  Dr Miki Ben Dor

Protein Poisoning on the Carnivore Diet

Getting more than 50% of your calories from protein will put you at risk for protein poisoning. 

When the body metabolizes protein, it produces waste substances such as ammonia and urea. When not getting enough fat on carnivore, excessive protein can overwhelm the body’s ability to process and eliminate these waste products efficiently, leading to elevated levels of urea in the blood. High levels of urea can be toxic to the kidneys, which are responsible for filtering and excreting waste products.

Symptoms of protein poisoning include [3] :

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Hyperaminoacidemia: Elevated levels of amino acids in the blood that can lead to liver, kidney, and hormonal disorders. 
  • Hyperammonemia: Elevated levels of ammonia in the blood that can lead to liver and intestinal problems.
  • Hyperinsulinemia: Elevated levels of insulin that can lead to numerous hormonal imbalances.
  • In extreme cases, can result in death after 2-4 weeks of prolonged protein poisoning

Clinically Observed Protein Poisoning on a Carnivore Diet

In the early 1900s, Arctic explorer and Harvard trained ethnologist Vilhajlmur Stefansson spent years living with the inuit, where he learned to thrive on a traditional carnivore diet of mostly animal fats and organs. 

Upon returning to America, Stefansson wanted to demonstrate the health benefits of the diet to a Western world that thought he was crazy. 

To add legitimacy to his demonstration, Stefansson practiced the carnivore diet with a friend while under observation New York’s Bellevue hospital for a year.

During that year, there was only a single time that the men experienced illness, and it occurred when the doctors overseeing them asked them to experiment by eating only lean meat.  

Not getting enough fat on his carnivore diet caused, as Steffanson described, “diarrhea and a feeling of general baffling discomfort.” 

Fortunately, Steffanson and his friend quickly reversed their symptoms with one feast loaded with fatty beef brains fried in bacon fat alongside sirloin steak.

This situation led the observing doctors to declare that a ratio of 3 parts fat to 1 part protein was ideal on the carnivore diet. To this day, this ratio stands as the rule of thumb for all modern low-carb, high-fat diets. 

Digestive Issues

For most people the most obvious manifestation of not getting enough fat on the carnivore diet will be digestive issues. 

Carnivore constipation and diarrhea can both be addressed by increasing fat intake while making sure you’re getting enough water and salt

Micronutrient Deficiencies 

Fat-soluble vitamins, including A, D, E, and the unique meat-specific vitamin K2, play crucial roles in supporting essential bodily functions such as immune response, hormonal balance, and gut health.

Vitamins A and D directly influence the production of bile acids, which are vital for metabolizing the increased fat consumption characteristic of a carnivore diet. These nutrients are predominantly obtained from meats rich in beneficial saturated fats.

One 2015 study found that 80% of participants with IBS, and over 30% of healthy participants were deficient in vitamin D. [5]

Given that many individuals turn to the carnivore diet to manage digestive issues like IBS, it’s plausible that they may already have insufficient levels of these essential fat-soluble vitamins. 

Carb Addiction and Always Feeling Hungry 

The typical American diet is inundated with carbohydrates from processed grains and added sugars. Research suggests that carbohydrates can trigger neurotransmitters and activate the brain’s reward centers in a manner akin to addictive substances such as alcohol and cocaine.5  

Carb addiction can contribute to a host of serious metabolic issues, including diabetes, infertility, heart disease, and various cancers.

Fortunately, unlike carbohydrates, fat consumed independently is not associated with addictive properties. In fact, fat has a satiating effect, meaning it helps us feel full for longer periods, reducing cravings for additional food.[6]

Not getting enough fat on the carnivore diet removes sugar without providing the satiety benefits of fat. This can intensify cravings for carbs, increasing the likelihood of indulging in highly processed and carb-laden junk food.

carb addiction cycle diagram

How to Get Enough Fat on Carnivore 

Though not getting enough fat can be a serious issue, on carnivore, it’s remarkably easy to increase your fat intake.

Build your meals around fatty cuts of meat, including

Cook and slather your meats in animal fats, including

What Happens if You Don’t Eat Enough Fat on the Carnivore Diet? The Bottomline

The carnivore diet is essentially a zero carb way of eating. When reducing carbohydrates, not getting enough fat can lead to potentially serious issues stemming from an excessive reliance on protein.

The human body has a finite capacity to derive energy from protein, typically between 35% and 50% of total caloric intake. Exceeding this threshold can lead to a condition known as protein poisoning and digestive discomforts such as diarrhea, bloating, and constipation.

Furthermore, insufficient fat intake deprives the body of a highly satiating nutrient, potentially exacerbating cravings for carbohydrates, particularly during the initial phases of adopting the carnivore lifestyle.

Obese man silhouette made with lots of refined white powdered sugar. Visual metaphor indicating the harmful effects of sugar on the human body.

The Effects of Sugar on the Body

Sugar has become omnipresent in the standard Western diet. It lurks in various forms in nearly everything we consume, from the obvious pastries and sweets to the hidden sugars in processed foods, and even fresh fruits and vegetables. Over the years, our consumption of sugar has skyrocketed to nearly 250 grams of carbohydrates a day. With 82 grams directly from added sugars, and most of the rest coming from grains, [3] In this article, we’ll explore the effects of all this sugar on the body. Here’s a hint, it isn’t pretty!


Sugar Causes Inflammation Throughout the Body

You’ve probably heard of inflammation. In fact, inflammatory diseases are an epidemic of modern civilization. 

Across the globe, 3 out of 5 people die from chronic inflammatory diseases such as stroke, respiratory diseases, heart disorders, various cancers, and diabetes. With many millions more suffering from inflammatory diseases, including 2  

  • IBS
  • Alzheimer’s
  • Arthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Parkinson’s
  • PCOS

In short durations, inflammation is an important immune response. But when our bodies are constantly subjected to modern lifestyle factors, the body is always under attack. In reponse, the inflammatory response never turns off, and this mechanism that is supposed to protect and heal begins to damage healthy tissue. 

Added sugars, and high carbohydrate foods in general, have been routinely found to cause oxidative stress that results in chronic systemic inflammation. 

Most people are not aware that our modern bodies preserve the metabolic systems that our ancestors evolved over millions of years as hunter-gatherers who relied on low-carb, high-fat diets of mostly meat.[4][ 5]  

The modern diet, based on cultivated grains and added sugars, marks an extreme metabolic departure from the food we’re designed to thrive on. It’s no surprise that sugar affects the body by promoting inflammation in various ways: 

  • Glycation: sugar molecules bind to cells, DNA, RNA, and proteins in ways that cause cellular damage. Wrinkles and skin aging is a result of glycation 

diagram of glycation from carbohydrate molecule

  • Damages the glycocalyx: The glycocalyx is a delicate membrane that coats and protects every cell in the body. A healthy glycocalyx is responsible for regulating important functions, including cardiovascular health and immune system response.

detail of Glycocalyx

  • Dysregulates intestinal microbiome: Sugar feeds harmful gut bacteria and reduces protective bacteria, which can cause gaps in the intestinal lining. Pathogens can then leach into the bloodstream, where they are deposited throughout the body, triggering widespread and chronic inflammation. 

Leaky gut Syndrome concept. Comparison of healthy organ and inflamed tissue cells. Diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Toxins and viruses. Cartoon flat vector illustration isolated on white background

Numerous studies find that inflammation is one of the effects of sugar on the body. [20] [21

A 2021 study comparing the effects of high-carb vs low-carb diets on a population of overweight women revealed that the high-carb diet was associated with increased markers of inflammation. [17]

Similarly, a 2014 study on people with type 2 diabetes compared a low-carb vs. low-fat diet. Though weight loss was similar for both groups, the low-carb diet dramatically reduced inflammation.[18]

A study on the effects of low to moderately-sweetened beverages on healthy young men found that drinking only a single 375 ML soda (40 grams of sugar) each day significantly increased inflammation along with insulin resistance, LDL “bad” cholesterol, and weight gain. [19]

Effects of Sugar on Body Weight

Countless studies show that sugar is a key factor in increased rates of obesity. [57],35 36 37

And there are numerous ways that sugar contributes to excessive weight gain. 

Sugar promotes insulin sensitivity in fat cells. At the same time, sugar promotes insulin resistance in muscle cells and vital organs. [58] What this means is that sugar feeds fat cells while simultaneously starving cells in other important areas of the body. [59]

Additionally, high blood sugar levels interfere with the body’s ability to respond to the hormone leptin. Leptin is responsible for decreasing hunger cues. When you lose sensitivity to leptin, you store more calories as fat, stay hungry, and lose motivation to move your body. Essentially you’re in starvation mode even though you’ve had enough calories.12

Another way sugar drives obesity is as an ingredient in low-nutrient processed foods. Processed foods are designed to be hyper-palatable and trigger reward signals in the brain–a recipe for addiction. At the same time, processed foods are very low in nutrients. This combination of addictive stimulation and low nutrient value motivates people to overeat. 3 31

Effects of Sugar on the Heart

Research shows that the inflammation driven by sugar is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. [15] [16]

detail of clogged artery

A 2023 study published in the journal BMC Medicine found that diets high in added sugar–the kind you find in processed foods and soda, fruit, fruit juice, and syrups–increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. For every 5% increase in calories from sugar resulted in a 6% higher risk of heart disease, and a 10% increase in risk of stroke.[10]

In 2014 a study of over 30,000 participants found that those who consumed roughly twice as much sugar as those who got less than 10% of their daily calories from added sugar were 38% more likely to die from heart disease. [11]

The authors of a 2020 meta-analysis comparing high-carb and low-carb diets found that, “diets with high levels of carbohydrates, especially refined or high glycemic index carbohydrates…appear to be associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and increased risk of mortality.” [12]

Many other studies have found that low-carb diets result in significantly better cardiovascular health outcomes in addition to improved weight loss and blood sugar regulation than low-fat diets that tend to be high in carbs.[13]

Effects of Sugar on the Brain 

Considering that the brain uses 20% of the body’s energy intake, it’s no surprise that getting more of your calories from sugar will have significant effects on your brain. 

  • Sugar addiction: A 2013 study by researcher David Ludwig from Harvard found that consuming simple carbohydrates activated opiate and dopamine receptors in the craving and reward center of the brain. [6]  Another 2013 study found that in animals, sugar stimulates the brain’s reward centers in a way that makes sugar more desirable than cocaine.[9]  These irresistible reward signals override self-control causing overconsumption of sugar that can result in various metabolic diseases. [11]
  • Impairs memory and cognitive ability: A 2021 study found that daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during teenage years is linked to reductions in learning abilities and impaired memory in adulthood. The researchers suggest that these impairments are due to the way that sugar alters gut bacteria. [13]
  • Increases risk of neurodegenerative disease: Diabetes, caused by overconsumption of sugar, and Alzheimer’s overlap by around 80%. [17] Excessive insulin can damage the hippocampus, an area of the brain where signs of Alzheimer’s first appear. [18] Diets high in added sugar reduce the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a hormone that is critical to the creation of new neural networks, memory, and learning.5 19
  • Increases likelihood of psychological disorders: The effects of sugar impact gene expression and dopamine receptors in the brain. [26] A large-scale 2017 study have found that consuming sweet food and beverages resulted in a 23% increase in the risk of being diagnosed with common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. The study controlled for various other factors including exercise, demographics, body fat levels, diseases, and other dietary habits.

A 2022 study examining the effects of eliminating sugar and dramatically reducing all carbohydrates for psychiatric inpatients for whom standard treatments were ineffective found remarkable benefits:[27]

  • 100% of patients had significant improvements in depression, psychosis, and metabolic 
  • 96% of patients lost weight
  • 64% of patients reduced and even discontinued medication
  • 43% experienced total clinical remission

diagram summarizing benefits of ketogenic diet for bipolar

Effects of Sugar on the Liver

Because the liver is tasked with controlling how sugar is metabolized, the effects of sugar on this part of the body are profound.5

  • Fatty liver disease: Excess sugar can overwhelm the liver’s ability to metabolize it, triggering the liver to turn sugar into fat. This results in a condition called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). If sugar intake isn’t reduced, serious liver disease can occur.
  • Insulin resistance: High sugar intake causes cells to become unresponsive to insulin. The pancreas compensates by producing more insulin. Increased insulin in the blood results in liver damage and inflammation.6

How to Protect Your Body from the Effects of Sugar

Though the effects of sugar on the body are damaging and wide-ranging, there are strategies you can take to protect your body.

The Effects of Sugar on the Body: The Bottom Line

The effects of sugar on the body are various and can be profoundly detrimental. 

The human body evolved to thrive on a pre-agricultural diet of mostly fatty animal products. Sugar from wild fruits was rare, and grains had not been cultivated. The modern diet high in added sugars and simple carbohydrates results in widespread inflammation, cognitive impairment, and organ damage. 

The good news is that carbohydrates are a non-essential nutrient and can easily be substituted for healthy fats and proteins from sugar-free whole foods like fresh meat, eggs, and full-fat dairy. 

Closeup of knife slicing cutting cooked medium rare well done grilled grass-fed ribeye rib eye meat beef steak on white plate

The “Meat Fast” Diet Explained

The “meat fast” or “meatox” diet has gained popularity ever since it was popularized by carnivore diet enthusiasts like psychologist Jordan Peterson, podcaster Joe Rogan, Dr. Ken Berry, and Dr. Shawn Baker.  

Though true fasting calls for periods of abstaining from food, a “meat fast” calls for eating lots of meat and abstaining from all other foods. Though it may sound extreme, the meat fast is a practice used by tens of thousands of people to reclaim their metabolic health, heal digestive issues, reduce inflammation, lose weight, stabilize energy and mood, and to support recovery from various health issues. 

In this article, we’ll explore the ins and outs of the meat fast, including how to do it, what to eat, and its potential health benefits. 


What is A Meat Fast? 

A meat fast is a period of time, usually at least 30 days, in which you eat only meat and eliminate all other types of food. In essence, the meat fast is a carnivore elimination diet. 

Elimination diets are structured to identify food sensitivities or intolerances by removing specific foods or food groups. Eliminating all foods other than meat is aimed at pinpointing foods responsible for various symptoms such as bloating, digestive discomfort, skin issues, headaches, or fatigue.

Meat is the perfect elimination diet food because it is free from harmful plant toxins and antinutrients, carbohydrates, seed oils, sugars, grains, and artificial chemicals and additives. 

Various studies have shown that elimination diets are effective approaches to treating inflammatory bowel diseases, IBS, and numerous allergies. [1] [2] [3]  Many other studies have found that diet is a key factor in numerous conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, chronic skin ailments, and depression. [4] [5] 6 7 

Though traditional elimination diets systematically reintroduce the eliminated foods as the dieter observes for adverse reactions, most people who practice meat fasts stick with some version of animal-based or all-meat eating, and usually continue to restrict all processed foods, grains, added sugars, and seed oils. 

Dr. Paul Saladino, formerly known as the Carnivore MD, who many point to as the originator of the term “meat fast” has now reintroduced fruit and honey to an otherwise all-meat diet. Other meat fasters like Joe Rogan and Jordan Peterson have experimented with adding in some cooked leafy greens. 

In Jordan Peterson’s case, he’s continued a diet consisting of little more than fatty cuts of steak for five years and his health has never been better. 

How to Do a Meat Fast

There is no single way to do a meat fast, however, there are more or less standard approaches. 

The most popular meat fast method involves simply consuming fatty steak, salt, and water for at least 30 days. This way of eating is also called the “Lion Diet.” 

Other popular approaches to meat fasts include the beef and butter fast and the steak and eggs diet. 

There are some tried and true strategies that can help you initiate and thrive on your meat fast. Here’s a rundown; 

  • Commit to a timeframe: A meat fast entails a major habitual and metabolic change. It will take time for you body and mind to transition, adapt, and experience the full benefits. 30 days is the minimum. While 90 days is optimum for most people.
  • Remove temptations by cleaning out your fridge and pantry: Standard Western diet foods are designed to be addictive. As with overcoming any drug, you need to rely more on strategy than willpower.
  • Join a carnivore community: Meat based communities are powerful resources to learn from and stay motivated with.  
  • Get the highest quality, fattiest cuts of steak available to you: Grass-fed and pasture-raised meats will have the best fatty acid profile, but conventional meats are also a great option on a budget. In either case, choose the fattiest cuts available. Ribeye and NY strip are meat fast centerpieces.
  • Eat way more fat than you’re used to: When you cut carbs your body needs to get most of its calories from fat, not protein. A meat fast is a high-fat, moderate protein way of eating. Aim for at least a 1:1 gram of fat to protein ratio. Fat has nearly twice as many calories per gram as protein. When in doubt, add tallow to your steak. 
  • Salt your meat liberally: When you cut carbs your body flushes electrolytes. Maintain your electrolyte needs by consuming 12 grams (2 tsp) of salt for the first few days. Once adapted, continue to consume a minimum of 5 grams (about 1 tsp) of salt daily. [9]
  • Drink plenty of water: Replace the liquid your body flushes with mineral water. 

Physiological Changes During A Meat Fast

Consuming only meat requires your body to undergo significant physiological changes, including:

  • Increased stomach acidity from pH 3-5 (sufficient for metabolizing starches), to pH 1.3-2.0 needed to metabolize exclusively fat and protein. 
  • Bile upregulates in your gallbladder. Bile is essential for digesting all that extra fat. Additionally, the smooth muscle of your gallbladder gets stronger in order to process more fat. 
  • The liver increases the bile stored in its ducts to help digest more fat. 

During a transitional period that can last from 1-3 weeks, many people on a meat fast report temporary side effects like diarrhea and nausea.

Benefits of A Meat Fast

Though the meat fast hasn’t been studied in a clinical setting, thousands of carnivore dieters attest to a range of powerful benefits, including:

In 2021, the benefits of an all-meat diet took a major step toward institutional validation thanks to research out of Harvard University conducted by Dr. Belinda Lennerz and Dr. David Ludwig. 

The study surveyed the effects of consuming only meat on 2,029 people over 6 months. [5]

Though the six-month period is longer than many meat fasts, the results speak to the bevy of powerful benefits available to a meat-only approach to metabolic health. 

This is summed up in the researcher’s conclusion that, “Contrary to common expectations, adults consuming a carnivore diet experienced few adverse effects and instead reported health benefits and high satisfaction.”

Some of the highlight benefits include:

  • 93% improved or resolved obesity and excess weight
  • 93% improved hypertension
  • 98% improved conditions related to diabetes
  • 97% improved gastrointestinal symptoms
  • 96% improved psychiatric symptoms

The benefits of the meat fast diet are linked to both what you remove and what you add into your diet. 

  • Eliminates irritating and inflammatory plant foods.
  • Eliminates toxic processed foods.
  • Resets gut microbiome by removing fermentable fibers that feed harmful bacteria
  • Nourishes your body with healthy fats, complete proteins, and vital micronutrients only found in meat.

What to Eat on a Meat Fast

The meat fast generally entails consuming only fatty red ruminant meat

Steak is most common, but lamb, bison, and game meats like elk and deer are also good options. Indeed, many meat fasters are also hunters who remark on the special feeling of exclusively consuming wild game meat. 

Though long-term carnivore dieters often include some fish, pork, chicken, and rich cheeses. meat fasting is most often restricted to red meat. 

More adventurous meat fasters supplement their muscle meat intake with nutrient-dense organ meats such as liver, pancreas, marrow, heart, and brain. 

For the majority of us who don’t have access to hunted meat and aren’t ready to take the plunge into nose-to-tail cuisine, here’s a chart of the fattiest cuts of steak. 

Beef Cut

Per 100


CaloriesFatProteinCarbs% Calories from fat% Calories from protein
Boneless short ribs440411608415
Tri-tip roast340291807721
Beef Back Ribs310261907525
Top Sirloin240162206037
80/20 Ground Beef30719.630.505941
Skirt Steak26516.52705842
Flank Steak20083203664

What to Drink on a Meat Fast

The standard for a meat fast is to consume only water, preferably mineral water. 

However, some meat fasters allow for black coffee or unsweetened tea. 

If you choose to consume caffeinated beverages, leave out the milk and sugar. If you know your body tolerates dairy well, you can add in heavy cream, ghee, and/or butter. 

The Meat Fast Diet: The Bottom Line

The meat fast is a carnivorous elimination diet. It calls for consuming only meat–exclusively or mostly–from ruminant animals.

To call it a “fast” is a bit of a misnomer since there is no set time in which eating is restricted. Rather, on the meat fast, you are restricting all foods other than meat. 

People practice the meat fast as a way to improve numerous health issues, including food allergies, autoimmune conditions, digestive issues, skin problems, and mental health challenges. 

blue background with collagen powder close up

Top 5 Best Collagen Powders: Reviews and Rankings

In the ever-evolving realm of health and wellness, collagen powders have emerged as the “it” supplement, promising to rejuvenate skin, support joint health, strengthen hair and nails, and even improve sleep and memory. You’ve likely seen numerous brands of collagen supplements at your local market and even as an addition to coffee at your local cafe. With this growing array of options, choosing the right collagen powder can be confusing. Fear not! 

In this article, we offer a comprehensive guide to the best collagen powders available today, based on the quality and type of ingredients and our personal experiences as animal-based dieters who incorporate collagen into our daily routines. 


What is Collagen Powder? 

Collagen powder is a dietary supplement that provides collagen protein in a powdered form. 

Collagen itself is mainly composed of three amino acids: glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, that form a “triple helix” structure. As the most abundant complex amino acid, collagen accounts for around 30% of all the protein in your body.

collagen molecules

Image source: David Goodsell

We need all this collagen to maintain the structure of our bodies. Collagen is a major building block of our teeth, bones, hair, skin, and nails, as well as the foundational component of connective tissues and tendons. Collagen, quite literally, holds our bodies together. 

Why Do People Consume Collagen Powder? 

The body can make enough collagen to meet its needs from other amino acids that we get from food. Yet, as we age, our ability to produce collagen naturally declines. At the same time, the collagen already in our bodies becomes damaged and fragmented. A process that is exacerbated by eating sugary foods.

We can see the degradation of existing collagen in common signs of aging, such as sagging skin and wrinkles, and experience it as aching joints and more brittle bones.

People turn to collagen powders and supplements to help stem the tide of collagen loss and damage. However, the collagen from supplements does not directly replenish our depleted supply. Rather, collagen powders supply our bodies with a concentrated source of amino acid building blocks that our bodies then synthesize back into collagen. 

In addition to collagen powders, you can support the production of more collagen by consuming foods high in the foundational amino acids glycine and proline, such as beef, chicken, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

How is Collagen Powder Made? 

Collagen powder is most commonly made from either one or a combination of the skin, bones, and cartilage of cows, along with fish scales and egg shells. These raw materials are broken down into smaller, much more digestible amino acids in a process called hydrolysis.

Benefits of Collagen Powder

Collagen supplements have been found to promote various health benefits including

  • Skin Health: Supplementing with collagen powder can improve skin elasticity and hydration, and reduces the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines
  • Bone Health: Collagen supplements may reduce the process of bone degeneration that results in osteoporosis.
  • Healthy Joints: Studies show that hydrolyzed collagen contains biologically active peptides–molecules that are usually buried in the larger protein structure of a food. In their free form in collagen powder, these peptides can reach joint tissues and protect cartilage from wear and tear, reducing stiffness and pain.
  • Strengthens hair and nails: Collagen is also a key component of hair and nails, and supplementing with collagen powder may help strengthen and promote their growth
  • Emotional Calming and Neuroprotection: Collagen powder provides more of the amino acid glycine than any other food. Glycine ​​has been shown to normalize levels of the neurotransmitter GABA, which promotes relaxation, calmness, and improved mood. [3] The calming effects of glycine have been found to positively impact neurological disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.
  • Improves Sleep: Studies consistently show that glycine helps promote healthy sleep.
  • Gut Health: The glycine, proline, and glutamine that make up a significant proportion of the amino acids in collagen powder promote gut health by reducing inflammation and protecting the integrity of the intestinal lining against permeability. A study on healthy women found that 20 grams of collagen peptides per day reduced bloating and improved mild digestive issues.

Perhaps the greatest benefit of collagen powder is how easy it is to integrate into your daily dietary routine. To promote the above health benefits, all you need is a scoop of powder mixed into your daily beverage, soup, or even just a glass of water. 

That said, the most definitive research on the effectiveness of collagen powder is still emerging.

Top 10 Collagen Powders List

Now let’s turn to our list of best collagen powders based on the quality of their ingredients, along with their specific uses and potential benefits. 

1. Best Multi Collagen Powder: Ancient Nutrition Multi Collagen Peptide

Tub of ancient nutrition collagen powder

Ancient Nutrition multi collagen ranks as our overall best collagen powder on our best multi-collagen powder. 

Ancient Nutrition is known for their creative blends of high quality functional ingredients. This multi collagen powder is a prime example. 

  • Formulated with ten types of collagen from four whole food sources: beef, chicken, fish, and fermented eggshell membrane
  • Fermented eggshell collagen has been shown to reduce exercise-induced discomfort. The fermentation process makes it easier for your body to absorb the amino acids. 
  • Enhanced with 4B CFU* of probiotics per two scoops to support healthy gut flora and digestive function. 
  • Provides 200% of your RDV of vitamin C. 

2. Best Single Source Collagen Powder: Garden of Life

Tub of garden of life collagen peptides

Garden of Life grass fed collagen peptides are sustainably sourced from grass-fed cows. 

In our testing we found them to be tasteless, odorless, and to dissolves well in hot morning drinks and cold smoothies. 

Garden of Life is a high-quality supplement brand that has been around for decades, building a reputation based on whole food ingredients, traceability, and third-party certifications. We like the feeling of trust and quality we get from this brand. 

These collagen peptides also offer the added bonus of 1.5  billion CFU of probiotics per scoop. 

Because there are no plant products added to Garden of Life collagen, it is also our pick for carnivore diet enthusiasts. 

3. Best Collagen Powder for Skin and Nails: THORNE Collagen Plus – Collagen Peptides Powder with Nicotinamide Riboside

Thorne collagen powder

Thorne’s Collagen Plus is the luxury option on our list. 

Thorne combines the benefits of collagen with a supporting cast of clinically studied compounds and plant extracts. 

One of these compounds in Thorne collagen powder is called Nicotinamide riboside (NR). NR acts as precursor to NAD+ a compound that promotes cellular protection and repair while combatting signs of aging. 

Thorne also adds a patented polyphenol blend called MitoHeal, which is an extract of red and black currants. These compounds have been found to reduce visible signs of skin aging.

4. Best Budget Collagen Peptides

collagen powder jar

The 42.3-ounce jar Bulletproof Unflavored Collagen Peptides is the best budget option on our list. Most other brands only offer around 1lb tubs as their largest size. 

Bulletproof collagen peptides provide an abundance of type I and type III bovine collagen harvested from pasture-raised cows without added hormones. 

Bulletproof has built its identity on a concoction called bulletproof coffee, which includes collagen as a key ingredient. They’re also a research-based company that prides itself on a deep scientific understanding of the quality and function of all its ingredients. 

5. Best Marine Collagen Powder: Vital Proteins Marine Collagen

Jar of marine collagen powder

Vital Proteins Marine Collagen are made from the scales of fresh, non-GMO wild-caught cod. Their nutrition profile is very similar to that of a standard bovine. Their main appeal is to pescatarians. 

carnivore diet burger

12 Creative Carnivore Diet Meal Ideas

At its heart, the carnivore diet means eating only meat. This can sound extremely restrictive, and indeed, there are hyper-minimal versions of the carnivore diet, like the Lion approach, which calls for only red meat, salt, and water. But most people on the carnivore diet graduate from this elimination stage to a more creative gastronomical palette. 

In fact, carnivore meals tend to be more delicious, satisfying, and, yes, even more, varied than standard Western meals based on a few antinutritious grains and onerous vegetables. 

In this article, we’ll follow Leonardo da Vinci’s famous saying, “art lives from constraints and dies from freedom.” We’ll unveil 10 delicious carnivore meal ideas that will keep you excited about taking your health and wellness into your own hands, one bite of meat at a time. From succulent Meatza to savory crockpot delights, we invite you to discover the art of creating carnivorous meals that will leave you craving for more.


What are Carnivore Diet Meals? 

If you’re new to the carnivore diet, this way of eating calls for eliminating all plant foods and eating only animal products. 

For most carnivore dieters, this means focusing on fatty ruminant meats from beef, bison, and lamb, supplemented with pork, poultry, fish, seafood, and full fat dairy. 

This way of eating realigns our metabolism with the diet our hypercarnivorous ancestors evolved and thrived on for two million years until the dawn of agriculture a mere 10,000 years ago. 

Cutting plant foods eliminates nearly all carbohydrates and thousands of plant toxins and antinutrients. The result is a low-carb, high-fat diet plan that can dramatically reduce inflammation, improve mood, stabilize energy, and heal digestive issues

Foundational Carnivore Meal Ingredients

All of the following carnivore diet meals and recipes revolve around an array of animal-based foods. These include

Fatty Meat from land-based animals: Most carnivore meals derive the majority of their calories from ruminant animals and/or pork. Fat-rich cuts of steak, ground beef (80/20 or fattier) , lamb, and pork, (lots of bacon and pork belly)

Animal fats: Butter, ghee, tallow, and lard are key to nourishing your body with the fat it needs to thrive–remember carnivore diet meals and high-fat, moderate-protein, and zero-carb affairs. Need to boost your fat intake, enjoy a tablespoon of butter as a snack

Eggs: Eggs are loaded with every nutrient needed to grow a living being. They are also incredibly versatile and key part of carnivore diet “bread” recipes. 

Organ meats: The nose-to-tail approach to carnivore includes the most nutrient-dense parts of animals–their organs. Beef liver, bone marrow, pancreas, spleen, and even brain can make regular cameos in many carnivore diet meals. 

Fatty fish: King salmon, Atlantic mackerel, anchovies, sardines, and arctic char are among the fattiest fish available and a great way to add variety to your carnivore diet meal ideas. 

Seafood: Seafood is yet another nutrient dense class of carnivore fair. Salmon roe, oysters, mussels, shrimp, and crab provide and abundance of zinc, B12, and can help boost potassium, which can be hard to come by with land meats. Keep in mind that seafood is relatively lean and is best enjoyed drenched in butter. 

Full-fat dairy: Grass-fed butter and ghee, creamy carnivore cheeses are common additions to succulent carnivore diet meals. For people who tolerate dairy well, heavy/whipping cream, and even keto-friendly yogurt (boosted with heavy cream) can be included.

Salt: Salt is a critical component of every carnivore diet meal, and all low-carb diets [2] When you cut carbs your body flushes electrolytes that need to be replenished liberally. 

Now lets turn to twelve creative carnivore diet meal ideas and their ingredients. 

1. Carnivore Diet Shepherd’s Pie

shepherd's pie

In its most traditional form in Ireland, shepherd’s pie was made with lamb. But if you’re in a pinch, you can concoct it the British way with ground or minced beef. 

This carnivore version substitutes out the potatoes and replaces them with a fluffy topping of sour cream, eggs and hard cheese. 

Serves 8Prep time: 20 minutesCooking time: 35 minutes


  • 800g (28 oz) minced lamb or mutton
  • 2 tbsp tallow (or butter)
  • 8 large eggs
  • 300g (10 oz) sour cream
  • 1 tsp sea salt
  • 4 tbsp grated hard cheese (we used goat cheese)

Optional ingredients for non-carnivores. 

  • 1 tsp black pepper
  • 1 tsp onion powder
  • 1 tsp garlic powder
  • 1 tsp dried celery or parsley
  • 1 tsp dried thyme, peppermint or sage
  • 1/2 tsp Ceylon cinnamon
  • 1 tsp freshly ground red peppercorn (or juniper berries)

You can follow the entire recipe at 

2. Classic Carnivore Club Sandwich 

close up of a club sandwich

Sandwiches usually mean bread, which means grains, which is a big no no on the carnivore diet. That is unless your bread is made with only eggs, pork, ghee, and salt! Enter the mighty carnivore club sandwich. 

This dish is loaded with at least three different meats, cheese (the recipe creator suggests “raw), and duck fat carnivore mayonnaise

Serves 4 sandwichesPrep time: 1 hourCooking time: 1 hourRest time: 10 minutes


Carnivore Sandwich Bread:

Duck Fat Mayonnaise:

  • Duck fat
  • Eggs 
  • Lemon
  • Apple cider vinegar
  • Dijon mustard
  • Sea salt

For the Club Sandwiches:

To follow the entire recipe, hop on over to the always-fantastic Ash Eats

3. Carnivore Diet Meatza

carnivore diet meatza

Searching for a sneaky carnivore diet meal that increases your organ meat intake? Look no further than the carnivore diet meatza. The recipe calls for 225g of beef liver blended into the ground beef “crust,” but you can add any minced organ meat you want. 

Serves 3Prep time: 10 minutesCooking time: 25 minutes


  • 450 g ground beef (at least 15-20% fat)
  • 225 g Beef Liver (and/or other organ meats)
  • 3 large Eggs
  • 50 g Bacon
  • 50 g Mozzarella
  • 1 tsp Garlic Powder Optional
  • 1 tsp Chilli Optional
  • 1 tsp Salt

Follow the recipe in its entirety at FitAwakening

4. Carnivore Eggs Benedict

carnivore eggs benedict

Saucy and bready aren’t terms usually associated with the all-meat carnivore diet. But this carnivore eggs benedict recipe is up to the challenge. 

Serves 3Prep time: 20 minutesCooking time: 20 minutes


Easy Baked Eggs

  • 6 eggs
  • Salt to taste

Hollandaise Sauce

  • 3 Egg yolks
  • 1 tsp. Lemon juice
  • 1 stick of butter, melted but not hot

Follow the recipe step-by-step at ketogenicwoman

5. Hearty Crockpot Carnivore Beef Stew

carnivore diet beef stew

Craving tender meat that falls off the bone? You’ll love this slow-cook crockpot masterpiece. No carbs, not fiber, no nonsense. Just nourishment. 

Serves 6Prep time: 20 minutesCooking time: 8 hours


  • 4 pounds beef shank
  • 4 pounds chuck roast
  • 2 teaspoons salt divided
  • 2 tablespoons tallow or other cooking fat, divided
  • 4 cups Carnivore Bone Broth

Follow the recipe by Jessica Haggard over at Primal Edge Health. 

6.  Bacon, Egg & Cheese Roll-Ups

close up of bacon wrapped around eggs and cheese

Bacon, Egg + Cheese Roll Ups are the finger licking product of only 3 carnivore ingredients. Try them for breakfast and take them on the road for a certified carnivore snack.

Serves 2Prep time: 5 minutesCooking time: 25 minutes


Follow the recipe with Rachel Mansfield

7. Tripe Noodles with Creamy Carnivore Alfredo Sauce

tripe noodles

Tripe is often used in creative carnivore recipes like these tripe noodles from Carnivore Minimalist. You can use these as the basis for carnivore meat sauce or a creamy carnivore alfredo. 

For a quick treat, enjoy your tripe with a simple topping of butter, parmesan, and salt, or add it to a premade bone broth recipe. 

Take it a step further and drench it in this creamy carnivore sauce recipe below. 

8. Carnivore Burger with 2-Ingredient Bun

carnivore diet burger

Are you missing your hamburgers yet? Not to worry. This creative carnivore meal idea with 2-ingredient buns is sure to return you to pre-carnivore burger paradise. 

Serves 6Prep time: 5 minutesCooking time: 20 minutes


For the buns:

  • 1½ cups mozzarella cheese shredded
  • 2 large eggs

For each burger:

  • 1 4-ounce burger patty
  • ½ ounce cheese 
  • 1 slice bacon optional, cut in half so it fits under the bun
  • 1 large fried egg 

Follow Jessica’s step-by-step recipe at Primal Edge Health

9. Organ Meat Pie (Carnivore Quiche) 

close up of a meat pie in cast iron pan

If you’re having trouble figuring out how to incorporate more organ meats, this carnivore meal idea is right up your alley. 


  • ½ pound ground beef
  • ½ pound ground beef heart
  • ½ pound ground beef liver
  • 1 tablespoon beef tallow or butter, ghee, other cooking fat melted
  • 3 eggs
  • ½ teaspoon salt

Full recipe here

10. Ribeye Roast with Bone Marrow on the Grill

Blow the socks off even the most carnivore skeptic friend with this insanely delicious ribeye roast covered all around with succulent bone marrow. Pull this off and you’re an instant legend. 

Cooking time: 1 hour on the grill before reverse searing the meat.


  • Ribeye roast
  • Salt
  • Bone marrow

11. Carnivore Fried “Rice”

close up of carnivore friend rice in white bowl

In case you’re new here, there is no “rice” in carnivore friend rice. The substitute in this case is white fish flakes. Dare we say it’s better than the original? 


  • 4 large eggs
  • 10 oz (280g) ground beef
  • 10 oz (280g) white fish
  • 10 oz (280g) cooked prawns or about 15 oz (430g) of fresh prawns
  • 2 strips bacon (pasture-raised if possible), chopped into small bits
  • 3/4 tsp salt
  • 4 tbs tallow

Follow the recipe at allthingscarnivore

12. Beef Bacon Wrapped Shrimp

close up of shrimp wrapped in beef bacon

These finger licking surf and turf wraps are as easy as they are delicious. They make a savory appetizer or a filling meal depending on if you’re up for sharing them or not. 

Serves 4Prep time: 20 minutes (with sauce)Cooking time: 20 minutes


  • 8 oz Wellshire Beef Bacon 
  • 12 oz peeled shrimp
  • Toothpicks

For a dipping sauce use carnivore diet mayo or drawn butter. 

Follow the recipe with GrassFedGirl here

Creative Carnivore Diet Meal Ideas: The Takeaway

The carnivore diet is anything but bland and these creative carnivore diet meal ideas are here to prove it. 

From club sandwiches and burgers to fried “rice”, the carnivore diet provides an array of uber-delicious options made from the most nutrient dense foods on earth with no additives and no needless plant products. 

Tuck into the carnivore diet meals and put your cravings to bed. 

Meat collection on white background. Beef, pork, chicken, fish isolated on white. Set of natural food. Top view. Flat lay.

Top 12 High Glycine Foods and Health Benefits

Glycine is an important amino acid that plays crucial roles in various bodily functions, from supporting muscle growth to promoting better sleep and cognitive function. Though the body can produce glycine on its own, increasing glycine intake from high glycine foods can support numerous health benefits.

In this blog article, we’ll explore the benefits of glycine and the top foods that are rich in glycine, empowering you to enhance your diet for greater health and vitality.


What is Glycine?

C2H5NO2 glycine amino acid molecule

Glycine is a simple amino acid, which means that it is one of the building blocks of proteins. 

Though small in size and molecular weight, glycine plays a major role in many important physiological processes. 

Considered non-essential because your body can synthesize glycine from other amino acids, getting glycine from the food you eat is still important for the health of your muscles, liver, skin, while providing numerous other benefits. 

Benefits of Glycine

The functions of glycine. Amino acid glycine chemical molecular formula. Vector illustration on isolated background.

More than just a protein building block, glycine is one of the most versatile amino acids. Let’s take a brief tour of the specific benefits that can be enhanced by consuming high glycine foods. 

Calming Neurotransmitter

Some amino acids, including glycine, act as neurotransmitters. The main amino acids we get from muscle meats are considered “excitatory” to the central nervous system. And though this is healthy, our bodies need a balance between excitatory and inhibitory amino acids.

Glycine has inhibitory effects and normalizes GABA levels to improve mood and promote relaxation and calmness.

The inhibitory effects of glycine have been studied for their positive impacts on neurological disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

Glycine for Sleep

The inhibitory effects of glycine, along with its ability to increase serotonin factors in numerous studies showing that glycine enhances sleep quality, helps people fall asleep faster, and decreases daytime drowsiness.

A 2016 study found that taking 3 grams of glycine helped improve sleep along with daytime cognitive ability and better memory.

Improves Digestion and Nutrient Absorption 

Your body uses glycine to create bile acids in the liver. Adequate bile acids are critical to the ability to digest fats and absorb fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine.

This fat-digesting factor makes high glycine foods particularly important on high-fat, low-carb diets like keto and carnivore

Glycine has also been found to protect against gastric ulcers.

Protects Against Oxidative Stress

Glycine is a precursor to a powerful antioxidant called glutathione. By helping to restore glutathione, glycine foods enhance the body’s defense against oxidative stress, which is associated with numerous autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and dementia. 

Through its positive effects on glutathione, glycine foods benefit nearly every cell in the body.

Glycine Neutralizes Methionine

When we eat a lot of muscle meat we are consuming another amino acid called methionine. Methionine has been shown to temporarily increase levels of yet another amino acid, homocysteine, high levels of which have been linked with cancer.

Glycine has been shown to significantly reduce homocysteine levels after protein-rich meals.

It’s important to note that studies exploring possible links between methionine and cancer find that in order to increase base levels of homocysteine, we need a very high dose of pure methionine– around 500% of normal daily intake.

Even high methionine doses, like you’d get consuming even a high meat animal-based diet, are not enough to increase homocysteine levels to dangerous thresholds.

Though there’s no convincing evidence healthy people eating diets high in muscle meat increase baseline levels of homocysteine, if you’re still concerned, give yourself peace of mind by increasing your intake of high glycine foods. 

Promotes Skin Health

Glycine is a building block of collagen, a protein that supports skin health

High glycine foods can boost collagen, helping to maintain skin hydration, firmness, and elasticity. 

Collagen also helps heal wounds and may protect the skin against the effects of aging.

Top Glycine Foods

To ensure and increase the above-mentioned benefits of glycine, focus on the following glycine-rich whole foods. 

1. Gelatin and Collagen powders

Gelatin is actually a whole food made by boiling animal bones, cartilage, and connective tissues. Then, they’re dried and ground into a fine powder. All that collagen-rich animal product yields a tremendous amount of glycine. 

A single ounce of gelatin provides 5334mg of glycine. 

Collagen powder is almost identical to gelatin in terms of glycine content. But it is processed in a way that makes it more digestible. 

A single ounce of collagen powder provides 5202mg of glycine. 

3716mg per 20grams (28grams in ounce)u collagen powder

2. Ground Beef Patty

Ground beef is one of the most underrated whole foods. It’s loaded with complete amino acids along with a complex of B vitamins, iron, zinc, and selenium. 

6 ounces of ground beef provides 3091mg of glycine. 

3. Lamb Shoulder

Lamb is loaded with 2951mg of glycine per 6 oz. serving. 

In addition to copious amounts of glycine, lamb provides an abundance of the “master antioxidant” glutathione along with the highly beneficial, anti-cancerous fatty acid called Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA). 

4. Ground Turkey

Ground turkey is a budget-friendly whole food that provides 2944mg per 6 oz serving. 

5. Skirt Steak

Skirt steak provides 2491gm 6 oz 

6. Pork Tenderloin

Pork, an often underrated yet nutritious whole food, provides 2478mg per 6 oz serving. 

7. Pork Chops

Pork chops provide 2472mg per 6 oz serving. 

8. Ribeye Steak 

Ribeye steak is the centerpiece of most animal-based diets, and for good reason. 

Ribeye provides 171% of your RDV in zinc and  242% of vitamin B12  and 112% of selenium. Together these nutrients fight depression, stabilize mood, support reproductive health, and boost immune function. 

6oz of ribeye provides 2410mg of glycine. 

9. Roast Duck 

Duck straddles the divide between red and white meat, but it doesn’t equivocate when it comes to glycine, providing 2237mg per 6 oz serving. 

10. King Salmon

King salmon is loaded with 2232mg of glycine per 6 oz. In addition, King salmon provides over 300% of B12 per serving. 

11. Roast Chicken Leg

 Roast chicken leg provides an abundance of protein, including  2038mg of glycine.

12. Bone Broth

Bone broth is a fantastic source of collagen and glycine, with 1700 mg per cup. 

Top Glycine Foods: The Bottom Line 

Glycine is an abundant amino acid that supports numerous critical physiological functions, including skin health, stable mood, digestion, and sleep. Consuming foods high in glycine will ensure that these functions will get the fuel they need.